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RFID BASED COURIER SORTING SYSTEM
A Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
Bachelor of Engineering
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Under the Guidance of :- Submitted By :-
Dr. Manoj Duhan Karan Jain (10001003024)
Prof. ECE Deptt. Raman Yadav (10001003041)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
DEENBANDHU CHHOTURAM UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY,
MURTHAL, SONEPAT, HARYANA-131039
DEENBANDHU CHOTURAM UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MURHAL, SONEPAT, HARYANA-131039
Certified that the project work entitled “RFID BASED COURIER SORTING SYSTEM” submitted by Karan Jain, Raman Yadav, Akash, Nishant in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering dept. at Deenbandhu Chhoturam University of Science and Technology Murthal, is an authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance. The matter embodied in this dissertation report submitted to any other university/institute for the award of any degree as per my knowledge
Project Guide :Dr. Manoj Duhan
This is certified that the B.Tech. Viva-Voce Examination of Mr. Karan Jain(10001003024), Mr. Raman Yadav(10001003041), Mr. Akash(11001003091) and Mr. Nishant(11001003099) has been held on date……………..……and accepted the project for the award of the degree
Project Co-ordinator External Examiner ChairmanCANDIDATE’S DECLARATION
We hereby declare that the work which is being presented in this project entitled “RFID based Courier Sorting System” in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of B. Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering Department at DEENBANDHU CHHOTURAM UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, MURTHAL(SONEPAT) is an authentic record of own work carried out by us under the guidance of Dr.(Prof.) Manoj Duhan, of Electronics and Communication Department.
The work presented here in this Project report has not been submitted by us for the award of any other degree of this or any other Institute/University
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.
DATE: Dr.(Prof.) Manoj DuhanPROJECT GUIDE
The completion of any project brings with it a sense of satisfaction, but it is never complete without thanking those people who made it possible and whose constant support has crowned our efforts with success.
One cannot even imagine the power of the force that guides us all and neither can we succeed without acknowledging it. Our deepest gratitude to Almighty God for holding our hands and guiding us throughout our lives.
I would also like to express our gratitude to Prof. Amit Garg Head of the department , Electronics And Communication ,Murthal for encouraging and inspiring us to carry out the project in the department lab.
I would also l ike to thank our guide, Dr. Manoj DuhanDept. Electronics and Communication for his expert guidance, encouragement and valuable suggestions at every step.
We also would like to thank all the staff members of ECE dept. for providing us with the required facilities and support towards the completion of the project.
We are extremely happy to acknowledge and express our sincere gratitude to our parents for their constant support and encouragement and last but not the least, friends and well wishers for their help and cooperation and solutions to problems during the course of the project.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most exciting technologies that revolutionize the working practices by increasing efficiencies, and improving profitability.
The article provides details about RFID, its components, how it works, and its usage in different sectors i.e. retail sales and supply chains, livestock industry, courier services, military and prisons, automobiles and logistics, entertainment industry, publishing industry, wireless transaction, and, especially, in LIBRARIES. The article also presents an in depth analysis of RFID uses in Libraries with implementation roadmap, its impacts on libraries, and a comparison of major vendors and their products.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS PAGE NO.
Candidate’s Declaration ii
Table of Contents v
1. INTRODUCTION TO RFID
1.1 RFID system
1.2 Components of RFID system
1.3 Working of RFID system
2. RFID Usage in Different Sectors
2.1 RFID in Courier System
2.2 RFID in retail services/supply chains
2.3 RFID in military usage
2.4 RFID in Publishing
2.5 RFID in Libraries
3. RFID System Layout
4. COMPONENTS USED
5. INTRODUCTION TO ATMEGA 8
5.1 ATMEGA 8
5.3 Pin Description
6. CONVEYOR BELT
6.1 The basics of a Conveyor Belt
6.2 The Movement Of a Conveyor Belt
6.3 The Transportation along a Conveyor Belt
6.4 The History of a Conveyor Belt
7. LCD(LIQUID CRUSTAL DISPLAY)
7.2 Basics of an LCD Display
7.3 Basic Structure of an LCD
7.4 Types of LCD
8. L293D CIRCUIT
8.3 Pin Functions
9. DC Gear Motor
9.2 External Structure
9.6 Basic Principle of Operation
10.Programming for RFID based Courier Sorting System
INTRODUCTION TO RFID
1.RFID System :-
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most exciting
and fastest growing technologies for increasing efficiencies and
improving profitability. RFID is a combination of a computer chip and a
small radio antenna that allows almost any object to "self-identify."
Originally developed for use in World War II, the British used it to
identify their planes.
The new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) first appeared in the
early 1980s where it was used for: item tracking and access control
applications. These wireless automatic identification data capture
systems allow for non-contact reading or writing of data and are highly
effective in manufacturing and other hostile environments where
barcode labels can not survive. Since the 1980’s, RFID has established
itself in a wide range of markets including livestock, retail sales,
wireless transactions, courier and logistics, publishing, automated
vehicle identification systems, etc.
2. Components of an RFID system
A standard RFID system consists of four main parts:
•RFID Tags - Applied directly to items. Each RFID tag contains a tiny
chip with a capacity of at least 96 bits. The tags can be permanently
activated (programmed during manufacturing) or, at higher complexity
and cost, read-write, both. The tags are electronically programmed with
unique information. The size of the tag depends on the size of the
antenna, which increases with range of tag and decreases with
• Antenna - also known as sensors, interrogators or readers. A conduit
between RFID tags and the coupler. RFID antennas connected to the
reader, emit power and data from and to the RFIS tags.
• Reader/ Coupler - link between RFID tags and the Server/ PC. The
coupler can send information in two directions: It can read information
from a tag and send it to the Server/ PC (read mode), or it can read
information from the Server and send it to an RFID tag (write mode).
• Server/ PC- link between the coupler and your library automation
system. The Server/ PC is the heart of a comprehensive RFID system. It
is the communications gateway among the various components. It
receives the information from the antennae and exchanges information
with the circulation database. The server typically includes a transaction
database so that reports can be produced.
3. How it work
4. RFID usage in different sectors
RFID applications are fueling a quiet business revolution that promises
to speed up inventory and payment systems and change our lives. RFID
is, in fact, already pervasive in our lives. Used to track everything from
pets to prisoners to products. Booth-Thomas (2003) states that more than
50 million pets worldwide are tagged with RFID chips. At least 20
million livestock have RFID tags to follow them before possible disease
breakthrough. US military used it in Iraq to electronically search
supplied and keep tabs on hospital patients.
4.1 RFID in courier services
Booth-Thomas (2003) describes that the RFID usage has been
implemented to track the shipments worldwide by different Courier
Services like DHL, Fedex Express. In Singapore and Helsinki DHL
tested it in anticipation of tracking the 160 million packages it ships
annually. DHL Worldwide Express, which handles 160 million packages
a year, plans to go global soon with RFID tracking. The program
manager Trevor Peirce of DHL said “This is amazing technology when
you see it working, and it’s all fine-tuned”. (Booth-Thomas, 2003).
4.2 RFID in retail sales/ supply chainsGlobally, RIFD is being used for a number of commercial applications,
and in particular for grocery stores and retail. The companies most
interested in RFID have been drawn to it by the great potential for
supply chain management. RFID technology holds the promise of
substantial improvements in retail store logistics. The item level tagging
is the mounteverest of the RFID industry. Large department stores like
Wal-Mart in USA and Marks & Spencer in the United Kingdom have
made aggressive plans for use of RFID in their management of product
inventories and sales. Booth-Thomas (2003) reports that in 1999, the
three men with the help of P & G and Gillette, founded the Auto-ID
Center at M.I.T. pursuer RFID uses. Today 103 companies are members,
including consumer giants like Johnson & Johnson, Kimberly-Clark,
Kraft Foods and Unilever. In June Wal-Mart CIO Linda Dillman gave
the firm’s 100 top suppliers—which provide half the goods on its
shelves-a veiled ultimatum about the stuff flowing into its 103 U.S.
4.3RFID in military usageThe biggest user of RFID today is probably the U.S. military, which has
plowed $272 million into RFID asset tracking—a system that has been
battle tested in Iraq. In Gulf War II, the Navy tracked wounded soldiers
“like Fedex tracks packages” cutting down battle field confusion. The
Army Materiel Command required all air pallets and commercial
shipments for Gulf War II to be digitally tagged so commanders like
General Tommy Franks a big supporter of the technology-knew when
and where critical cargo like tanks would arrive. Booth-Thomas (2003)
states, “RFID technology helps the military track 300,000 containers
in 40 countries every day. The Department of Defense (DOD) also
tracks humans with RFID.
4.4 RFID in publishingAt this stage of its development, RFID has both useful and unsettling
implications for publishing, but it is clearly a technology worth
watching. While the ability to track products through the supply chain
makes RFID appealing to the book industry and the price of the chips is
steadily declining. Among the issues that need resolving are the need for
publishers, distributors, and bookstores to add new software to their
systems; the cost and deployment of radio readers; and managing the
deluge of data suddenly rushing into companies' systems as cartoons,
skids and all other RFID-bearing items move through the distribution
chain. Publishers learned more about this technology through Book
Industry Study Group's annual meetings, and BISG is continuing to
investigate the technology. Just as Wal-Mart is driving the process in the
consumer products market, the distribution companies and bookstore
chains are bringing focus to the publishing value chain, at least for use in
the distribution process. Intriguing as it is to have each book be able to
identify itself as it moves from warehouse (or even printer) to bookstore,
shelf and cash register.
4.5 RFID in libraries
RFID is the new technology that revolutionizes library management and
practices. IDTechEX’s report ‘One trillion tags in 2015’ illustrate that 70
million library books have been tagged. Ulfelder (2003) provide details
about Singapore Libraries that are using RFID technology with
remarkable results. Under the leadership of the National Library Board,
Libraries in Singapore aggressively implemented RFID technology in
their libraries. In Singapore’s library system, all 9 million books, videos
and DVDs are embedded with antitheft chips, allowing self-checkout.
These libraries offer excellent user friendly environment with self
service desk for check-out and check-in. Libraries in the United States
and United Kingdom are also deploying RFID technology. (Artz, 2003;
Harris, 2003; Timothy, 2003). Examples of the use of RFID technology
in USA can be found in both public and academic libraries. New
Hanover County Public Library in North Carolina and City Library at
Santa Clara California were among the very early implementers of RFID
technology. Others like Sarasota County in Florida are sufficiently
pleased with their pilot projects that they are expanding the program to
cover all libraries. RFID tags are already being used on individual books
in pilot programs in libraries in the U.S. and Canada. In these cases,
grants are covering the cost of implementation bycompanies like VTL.
The fact that books circulate drops the cost per book per use to a
reasonable level. Once a person is identified as a library patron, check-
out is easy. The patron walks past the check-out reader station, and
without stopping the books are recorded as checked out. Similarly, a
patron can check in any time just by dumping the books down the return
chute, where a reader automatically records their return. A special wand
that reads every chip on every book on the shelf allows librarians to
know instantly which books are in or out or improperly shelved.
4.6 RFID SYSTEM LAYOUT:
3. Reader antenna.
5. Host and software system.
6. Communication infrastructure.
EM-18 RFID module
DC Gear Motor
One Conveyor Belt
INTRODUCTION TO ATMEGA 8
ATMEGA 8 The ATmega8 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega8 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS
per MHz, allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
FIG. Block Diagram of ATMEGA8
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose
working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be
accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The
resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs
up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega8 provides the following features: 8K bytes of In-System
Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes of
EEPROM, 1K byte of SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general
purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare
modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART,
a byte oriented Twowire Serial Interface, a 6-channel ADC (eight
channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) with 10-bit accuracy, a
programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial
port, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode
stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and
interrupt system to continue functioning. The Powerdown mode saves
the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip
functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save
mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to
maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping.
The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules
except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise
during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator
Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows
very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile
FEATURES of ATMEGA 8:
• High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller
• Advanced RISC Architecture
– 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
– 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
• High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
– 8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
– 512 Bytes EEPROM
– 1K Byte Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
– Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
– Programming Lock for Software Security
• Peripheral Features
– Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler, one Compare
– One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode,
– Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
– Three PWM Channels
– 8-channel ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy
– 6-channel ADC in PDIP package
Six Channels 10-bit Accuracy
– Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
– Programmable Serial USART
– Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
– On-chip Analog Comparator
• Special Microcontroller Features
– Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
– Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator
– External and Internal Interrupt Sources
– Five Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-
• I/O and Packages
– 23 Programmable I/O Lines
– 28-lead PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, and 32-pad QFN/MLF
• Operating Voltages
– 2.7 - 5.5V (ATmega8L)
– 4.5 - 5.5V (ATmega8)
• Speed Grades
– 0 - 8 MHz (ATmega8L)
– 0 - 16 MHz (ATmega8)
• Power Consumption at 4 Mhz, 3V, 25°C
– Active: 3.6 mA
– Idle Mode: 1.0 mA
– Power-down Mode: 0.5 μA
PIN CONFIGURATION :
FIG. PIN DIAGRAM VCC - Digital supply voltage.GND - Ground.Port B (PB7..PB0)XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors
(selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive
characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port
B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Depending on
the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the
inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating
circuit. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used
as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
Port C (PC5..PC0) - Port C is an 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with
internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output
buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and
source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low
will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins
are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is
PC6/RESET - If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as
an I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from
those of the other pins of Port C. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is un
programmed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin for
longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the
clock is not running.
Port D (PD7..PD0) - Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with
internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output
buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and
source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low
will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins
are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,even if the clock is
RESET - Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the
minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not
AVCC - AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, Port C
(3..0), and ADC (7..6). It should be externally connected to VCC, even if
the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter. Note that Port C (5..4) use digital supply
AREF - AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.
ADC 7..6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF Package Only)
In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7..6 serve as analog inputs to
the A/D converter. These pins are powered from the analog supply and
serve as 10-bit ADC channels.
Arithmetic Logic Unit – ALU
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all
the 32 general purpose working registers. Within a single clock cycle,
arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a
register and an immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided
into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. Some
implementations of the architecture also provide a powerful multiplier
supporting both signed/unsigned multiplication and fractional format.
Status Register - The Status Register contains information about the
result of the most recently executed arithmetic instruction. This
information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform
conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all
ALU operations, as specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will
in many cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare
instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code. The Status
Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine
and restored when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by
The AVR Status Register – SREG – is defined as:
• Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be
enabled. The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in
separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is
cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual
interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an
interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable
subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by the
application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the
Instruction Set Reference.
• Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the
T-bit as source or destination for the operated bit. A bit from a register in
the Register File can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit
in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the BLD
• Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic
operations. Half Carry is usefulin BCD arithmetic.
• Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N ⊕ V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the
Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V.
• Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement
• Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic
• Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic
• Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a Carry in an arithmetic or logic operation.
See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
Special Function IO Register – SFIOR
•Bit0–PSR10: Prescaler Reset Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0
When this bit is written to one, the Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0
prescaler will be reset. The bit will be cleared by hardware after the
operation is performed. Writing a zero to this bit will have no effect.
Note that Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler
and a reset of this prescaler will affect both timers. This bit will always
be read as zero.
The Basics of a Conveyor Belt:
Conveyor belts are basically very wide belts attached in a loop to two or
more turning rotors driven by motors. The loop is the actual conveyor
belt, and is generally made of two or more layers of rubber, one layer to
give shape and structure to the belt and one to allow it to transport its
load safely. This conveyor loop is generally attached to two wheels,
called rotors, which are spun by motors. The conveyor belt has enough
friction between it and the rotor that it sticks to this rotor.
The Movement of a Conveyor Belt:
As a rotor turns, the conveyor belt will turn as well due to the intense
friction between the rotor wheel and the belt. This turning motion of the
rotor causes one side of the belt to move in one direction, while the other
moves in the opposite direction. This means that both wheels must
always be moving in relatively the same direction, either clockwise or
counter-clockwise. If the two rotor wheels moved in opposite directions,
the conveyor belt would not travel at all.
The Transportation along a Conveyor:
The word convey means to send or transmit; therefore, a conveyor is
something that sends or transmits. Conveyor belts, mostly used in
industry, convey products or raw materials through the use of either
friction or mounts on the belt meant to hold the product in place as the
belt moves. As the conveyor belt moves its product, the product stays
around one place on the conveyor. Many times, twists or turns are put in
conveyors; these are facilitated by cone shaped rotors or wheels, which
allow the conveyor to turn.
A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys (sometimes
referred to as drums), with an endless loop of carrying medium - the
conveyor belt - that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are
powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The
powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is
called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt
conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving
boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those
used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials,
such as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.
Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been created
for conveying different kinds of material available in PVC and rubber
History of Conveyor Belt
Primitive conveyors with belts were first used isochronic with the onset
of the industrialization in the second half of the 18th century in England.
Many industries and companies – such as for example abattoirs and
bakeries – were then equipped with that new time- and money-saving
transport system. The most likely first steam operated conveyor belt was
set into operation in 1804 by the British Navy to produce ship’s biscuits.
In 1892, Thomas Robins developed a conveyor belt for carrying coal,
ore and other raw materials. Some years later, in 1901, the Swedish firm
Sandvik started with the production of conveyor belts made out of steel.
In 1905, the British mining engineer Richard Sutcliffe, designed the
worlds first conveyor belt for underground mining (to be used in coal
mines). His invention revolutionized the whole mining industry.
From 1907 on, conveyor belts were also used in Germany, more
precisely in a coffee company in Bremen. In 1913 famous Henry Ford
became the first car manufacturer using assembly lines with conveyor
In 1957, the B.F. Goodrich Company filed a patent for the so-called
Turnover Conveyor Belt System. This system had an integrated half-
twist, that extended a belts lifetime significantly, because it allowed the
belt to wear and tear off on both sides.
A French society created in 1972 a straight conveyor belt with a length
of 13.8 km, at the time it was the longest conveyor belt in the world.
Today, the longest conveyor belt has a length of 100 km and transports
phosphate from the mines in the Western Sahara to the coast. Nowadays
such heavy belts for outdoor transporting of bulk materials like stone,
coal or boulder, are rugged rubber belts with a steel cord traction
The light, fully synthetic fabric conveyor belt goes back to the 1960s,
when the industrial production of consumer goods started. These belts
are mainly used for indoor transportation of unit loads – such as food,
boxes, cans, luggage and so on. Constant effort on research and
innovation – steady amelioration of materials and production techniques
– turned light conveyor belts gradually to versatile and indispensable
machine elements for uncountable applications in almost every industry
Liquid-Crystal Display ( LCD )
It is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that
uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do
not emit light directly.
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose
computer display) or fixed images which can be displayed or hidden,
such as preset words, digits, and 7-segment displays as in a digital clock.
They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are
made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer
monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and
signage. They are common in consumer devices such as video players,
gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have
replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are
available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays,
and since they do not use phosphors, they do not suffer image burn-in.
LCDs are, however, susceptible to image persistence.
The LCD screen is more energy efficient and can be disposed of more
safely than a CRT. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be
used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically
modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled
with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight)
or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. Liquid crystals
were first discovered in 1888. By 2008, annual sales of televisions
with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, and the CRT
became obsolete for most purposes.
We always use devices made up of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) like
computers, digital watches and also DVD and CD players. They have
become very common and have taken a giant leap in the screen industry
by clearly replacing the use of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT). CRT draws
more power than LCD and are also bigger and heavier. All of us have
seen an LCD, but no one knows the exact working of it. Let us take a
look at the working of an LCD.
Basics of an LCD Display
The liquid-crystal display has the distinct advantage of having low
power consumption than the LED. It is typically of the order of
microwatts for the display in comparison to the some order of mill watts
for LEDs. Low power consumption requirement has made it compatible
with MOS integrated logic circuit. Its other advantages are its low cost,
and good contrast. The main drawbacks of LCDs are additional
requirement of light source, a limited temperature range of operation
(between 0 and 60° C), low reliability, short operating life, poor
visibility in low ambient lighting, slow speed and the need for an ac
Basic structure of an LCDA liquid crystal cell consists of a thin layer (about 10 u m) of a liquid
crystal sandwiched between two glass sheets with transparent electrodes
deposited on their inside faces. With both glass sheets transparent, the
cell is known as transmittive type cell. When one glass is transparent and
the other has a reflective coating, the cell is called reflective type. The
LCD does not produce any illumination of its own. It, in fact, depends
entirely on illumination falling on it from an external source for its
TYPES of LCDTwo types of display available are dynamic scattering display and field
effect display. When dynamic scattering display is energized, the
molecules of energized area of the display become turbulent and scatter
light in all directions. Consequently, the activated areas take on a frosted
glass appearance resulting in a silver display. Of course, the unenergized
areas remain translucent.
Field effect LCD contains front and back polarizers at right angles to
each other. Without electrical excitation, the light coming through the
front polarizer is rotated 90° in the fluid.
Now, let us take a look at the different varieties of liquid crystals that are
available for industrial purposes. The most usable liquid crystal among
all the others is the pneumatic phase liquid crystals.
L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC
motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can
control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means
that you can control two DC motor with a single L293D IC. Dual H-
bridge Motor Driver integrated circuit (IC)
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor
drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control
signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is
used to drive the motors.
L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common
mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in
forward and reverse direction. The motor operations of two motors can
be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or
11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in
clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively.
Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for
motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated
driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in
phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that
driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance
1 Enable pin for Motor 1; active high Enable 1,22 Input 1 for Motor 1 Input 13 Output 1 for Motor 1 Output 14 Ground (0V) Ground5 Ground (0V) Ground6 Output 2 for Motor 1 Output 27 Input 2 for Motor 1 Input 28 Supply voltage for Motors; 9-12V (up to
36V) Vcc 2
9 Enable pin for Motor 2; active high Enable 3,410 Input 1 for Motor 1 Input 311 Output 1 for Motor 1 Output 312 Ground (0V) Ground13 Ground (0V) Ground14 Output 2 for Motor 1 Output 415 Input2 for Motor 1 Input 416 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 36V) Vcc 1
DC GEAR MOTOR
Geared DC motors can be defined as an extension of DC motor which
already had its Insight details demystified here. A geared DC Motor has
a gear assembly attached to the motor. The speed of motor is counted in
terms of rotations of the shaft per minute and is termed as RPM .The
gear assembly helps in increasing the torque and reducing the speed.
Using the correct combination of gears in a gear motor, its speed can be
reduced to any desirable figure. This concept where gears reduce the
speed of the vehicle but increase its torque is known as gear reduction.
This Insight will explore all the minor and major details that make the
gear head and hence the working of geared DC motor.
At the first sight, the external structure of a DC geared motor looks as a
straight expansion over the simple DC ones.
The 12V DC Geared Motor can be used in variety of robotics
applications and is available with wide range of RPM and Torque.
• Length: 80mm
Torque: 1.5 kg.cm
• Shaft Diameter: 6mm
• Weight: 130.00g
A gear motor is a specific type of electrical motor that is designed to
produce high torque while maintaining a low horsepower, or low speed,
motor output. Gear motors can be found in many different applications,
and are probably used in many devices in your home.
Gear motors are commonly used in devices such as can openers, garage
door openers, washing machine time control knobs and even electric
alarm clocks. Common commercial applications of a gear motor include
hospital beds, commercial jacks, cranes and many other applications that
are too many to list.
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
A gear motor can be either an AC (alternating current) or a DC (direct
current) electric motor. Most gear motors have an output of between
about 1,200 to 3,600 revolutions per minute (RPMs). These types of
motors also have two different speed specifications: normal speed and
the stall-speed torque specifications.
Gear motors are primarily used to reduce speed in a series of gears,
which in turn creates more torque. This is accomplished by an integrated
series of gears or a gear box being attached to the main motor rotor and
shaft via a second reduction shaft. The second shaft is then connected to
the series of gears or gearbox to create what is known as a series of
reduction gears. Generally speaking, the longer the train of reduction
gears, the lower the output of the end, or final, gear will be.
An excellent example of this principle would be an electric time clock
(the type that uses hour, minute and second hands). The synchronous AC
motor that is used to power the time clock will usually spin the rotor at
around 1500 revolutions per minute. However, a series of reduction
gears is used to slow the movement of the hands on the clock.
For example, while the rotor spins at about 1500 revolutions per minute,
the reduction gears allow the final secondhand gear to spin at only one
revolution per minute. This is what allows the secondhand to make one
complete revolution per minute on the face of the clock
Programming For RFID Based Courier Sorting System:
// include the library code:
// include the library code:
// initialize the library with the numbers of
the interface pins
Serial.begin(9600); lcd.begin(16, 2);
Serial.println("Scan RFID Tag!");
int i =Serial.read();
int d1=l*2520; digitalWrite(11,HIGH);