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    EZ@TWD 3

    LH\\D Knkd \hfy

    BC@KNRHF N& I`kanf

    EFNFE Dss`y`kdwd

    ETDXD Fbyd Ont`u

    MNKHB Nrhk Ni`rh O`rkntdur 3 Cnkds RNKEF@

    WZ@K@RH@F HERR: :7>>

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    WANF

    Hftr`bulth`f

    Wrdkhrd pnrthd 3 hftr`bulth`f n an R`HW

    >& Wrhflhpds bd an R`HW:& Dfcdux dt k`thvnth`fs

    Bduxhkd pnrthd 3 prsdftnth`f dt l`foheurnth`f b Nstdrhsi

    >& Wrsdftnth`f b Nstdrhsi:& Ads o`flth`ffnahts b%nstdrhsi& Wantdo`rkd bd edsth`f trnfsodrt nut`knths bds nppdas:& \drvhld prnth`fs bd jnfqud

    L`flaush`f

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    HFRZ@BTLRH@F

    An fukrhsnth`f dt ahfo`rknthqud s`ft bd f`s c`urs df ernfb dss`r! ld quh n l`fbuht ufdhkp`rtnftd v`auth`f nu fhvdnu bds rsdnux tapm`fhquds& F`us nsshst`fs ufd khsd df panldbnppahlnth`fs a`ehlhdaads p`ur ufd kdhaadurd edsth`f bu oaux bds nppdas dftrnfts dt s`rtnfts& Ad

    prdkhdr dssnh b%nppahlnth`f bds \_H n t rnahs pnr HJK df >85: p`ur ad l`kptd bd an JnfqudJrdb& A%hftr`bulth`f bds \_H bnfs ads dftrdprhsds s%dst efrnahsd bnfs ad khahdu bds nffds >8=7&Bdpuhs >88>! ads sdrvdurs v`lnux fd s`ft paus sduadkdft prsdfts bnfs ads ernfbds dftrdprhsds knhsnussh bnfs ads pdthtds dt k`ydffds dftrdprhsds quh snlthvdft bnfs ads b`knhfds bd anrthsnfnt dt bdssdrvhlds o`urfhs nux pnrthluahdrs& Ad \_H n l`fsthtu ufd tnpd mhst`rhqud bd a%v`auth`f bdstdlmf`a`ehds hfo`rknthquds dt bds tal`kkufhlnth`fs! nu sdfs ` l%tnht an prdkhrd o`hs quda%hfternth`f bds tdlmf`a`ehds hfo`rknthquds dt v`lnads! dt bds tdlmf`a`ehds tapm`fhquds nu sdhfb%uf ufhqud quhpdkdft! bj`ulmnht sur uf vrhtnjad knrlm b%quhpdkdfts bd tal`kkufhlnth`f&Ad sdrvdur v`lna hftdrnltho l`fsthtud an prdkhrd tnpd bnfs a%v`auth`f bu L`upaned Rapm`fhd+Hfo`rknthqud -LRH(&

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    >& Wrhflhpd bd an tapm`fhd sur HWAn _`hx sur HW -nussh nppdad tapm`fhd HW( dst an p`sshjhaht bd trnfsp`rtdr ads l`fvdrsnth`fstapm`fhquds bnfs bds pnqudts HW& Wnr _ hx sur HW f`us bshef`fs tapm`fhd pnr Hftdrfdt nusdfs anred& F`us fd f`us ror`fs pns uf klnfhskd l`flrdt bd trnfsp`rt bd an v`hx sur Hftdrfdtdf pnrthluahdr& Wnrkh lds klnfhskds `f pdut bhsthfeudr bdux lnte`rhds 3 systkds odrks

    pr`prhtnhrds dt `uvdrts ahjrds& Bnfs an prdkhrd lnte`rhd f`us tr`uv`fs ad trs p`puanhrd \iypd dtad aedfbnhrd pr`t`l`ad bd LH\L@! \ihffy -\LLW(& @f fukrhsd an v`hx! `f an bl`upd df pdthtspnqudts quh sdr`ft trnfsp`rts sur ad rsdnu a`lna bufd dftrdprhsd `u vdrs Hftdrfdt& Ads pnqudts s`ftrnssdkjas anrrhvd p`ur qud ad bdsthfntnhrd puhssd dftdfbrd s`f hftdra`lutdur bd knfhrdhftdaahehjad&

    \yf`pthqud b%ufd nrlmhtdlturd rnll`rbd nvdl uf WNJ] trnbhth`ffda

    Lh+bdssus! uf syf`pthqud b%ufd s`auth`f *R`HW* nvdl hftdrl`ffdxh`f nvdl uf WJ] dxhstnft dt ufdahnhs`f vdrs ad rsdnu pujahl pnrthr bd an pnssdrdaad -entdwny( quh pdut sdrvhr s`ht df pdrknfdfld!s`ht bnfs ldrtnhfs lns -r`utned hftdrfnth`fna `u `prntdur bhoordft bu WJ](& Bnfs f`trd lns lh+bdssus! ads l`kp`snfts s`ft 3

    Tf swhtlm! Bdux p`stds HW -Lhsl` 58?7(! Tfd nppahlnth`f \`otWm`fd sur WL! Tf r`utdur sdrvnft bd pnssdrdaad vdrs ad WJ] dt vdrs ad W\RF! Tf sdrvdur bd l`kkufhlnth`fs HW-ad sdrvdur pdut trd hfter bnfs uf sdua dt kkd a+

    kdft(&

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    Ads bhoordfts l`bdls dt tnux bd l`kprdssh`fAds l`bdls s`ft bds lmhpsdts quh o`ft `oohld bd l`bdursbl`bdurs& Ldrtnhfs tdrkhfnux HW+WM@FD\

    f%nlldptdft qu%ufd pnrthd `u kkd uf sdua l`bdl! t`ut bpdfb bu k`bad bd tdrkhfna dt bul`fstrultdur& Ads prhflhpnux tnux bd l`kprdssh`f bd an v`hx s`ft ads l`bdls `oohlhdas suhvnfts 3

    L`bdls Bdjhts df Ijhts/s

    E&5>> WLK ?2E&5:? NB WLK ?E&5:8 L\ NLDAW =E&5:8 x : Dfl`bhfes =E&5:8 x < Dfl`bhfe =E&5: KWKA^ ?& + M

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    Df dftrdprhsd! an pr`bulthvht dst nkah`rd& W`ur ads nbkhfhstrntdurs! uf sdua rsdnu dst nbkhfhstrdr! ld quh shkpahd ernfbdkdft an edsth`f&

    @pthkhsnth`f bds rdss`urlds 3Ad rsdnu HW uthahsnft uf trnfsodrt bd pnqudts! authahsnth`f bds rdss`urlds dst `pthkhsd df

    l`kpnrnhs`f bds s`auth`fs bd typd l`kkutnth`f bd lhrluhts& Bnfs ad rsdnu ZRL! quh dst

    l`kkutnth`f bd lhrluhts! bds rdss`urlds s`ft bbhds p`ur t`utd an burd bd an l`kkufhlnth`f!qudaads s`hdft uthahsds `u f`f& @r ads trs f`kjrdux shadflds bufd l`fvdrsnth`f tapm`fhqudrdfbdft ad bhkdfsh`ffdkdft bu lnfna rsdrv systknthqudkdft tr`p ernfb& W`ur qud an v`hxsupp`rtd shkuatnfkdft an supdrp`shth`f bds bdux pnr`ads l`rrdsp`fbnft nux bdux hftdrvdfnftsbufd l`kkufhlnth`f tapm`fhqud -ouaa+bupadx(! ads rsdnux ZRL b`hvdft naa`udr p`ur lmnqudhftdrvdfnft bds lnfnux bhoordfts! auf df khssh`f! anutrd df rldpth`f&Bnfs an prnthqud! a`rs bufd l`fvdrsnth`f tapm`fhqud! ufd sduad pdrs`ffd fd pnrad df kkd

    tdkps& Ads rdss`urlds s`ft b`fl ea`jnadkdft ensphaads& Ldst p`urqu`h an rsdrvnth`f doodltud

    bnfs ads rsdnux ZRL rdprsdftd uf l`t fdttdkdft suprhdur ldauh bds rsdnux HW&

    L`t bd trnfsp`rt qunshkdft fua 3

    Erld ahfternth`f bd an tapm`fhd pnrkh bd f`kjrdusds nutrds nppahlnth`fs! ad l`t bu trnfsp`rtbdvhdft prnthqudkdft fua& Ad rsdnu pdrkdttnft bdoodltudr ad trnfsp`rt dst ad rsdnu lur bds

    `prntdurs! ldauh quh doodltud t`us ads trnfsp`rts bd b`ffds& Lds `prntdurs! quh tnhdft nupnrnvnft`jahes bd knhftdfhr nu k`hfs bdux rsdnux! ldauh bd tapm`fhd dt ldauh bd b`ffds! fdf `ft paus

    quuf sdua knhftdfhr& Ahfternth`f suppakdftnhrd bd an tavhsh`f bnfs ad rsdnu bd b`ffds onhtenadkdft lmutdr ads l`ts bd trnfsp`rt bd ldttd nppahlnth`f&

    \drvhlds dxlaushos 3Ldrtnhfs sdrvhlds s`ft pr`prds nux rsdnux HW& Wnr dxdkpad! ad sdrvhld bd prsdfld! l`fshstnft btdltdr sh uf uthahsntdur dst l`ffdlt nu rsdnu `u f`f! fd fldsshtd nulufd rsdrvnth`f bdrdss`urlds bnfs uf rsdnu HW! an bhoordfld bu rsdnu ZRL& Bd on`f nfna`eud! p`ur ad f`knbhskdbds uthahsntdurs! ha dst paus shkpad bd pnssdr! pnrt`ut bnfs ad k`fbd! pnr ad rsdnu HW pautt qud pnr adrsdnu ZRL&

    Bhspnrhth`f bds l`kkutntdurs a`lnux 3

    Ahd an prlbdftd! ldttd f`uvdaad b`ffd rsuatd bd an p`sshjhaht bd erdr ads tapm`fds bdpuhs adrsdnu bd a`prntdur& Bds s`auth`fs hftdrkbhnhrds! l`kkd ads WJ]+HW! pdrkdttdft bd pnssdr pdtht

    pdtht bds lhrluhts fukrhquds nux ahnhs`fs pnqudt HW&

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    H& WZD\DFRNRH@F B%N\RDZH\INstdrhsi dst uf WNJ] `pdf s`urld bvda`pp pnr Knri \pdfldr

    @oord ufd pantd+o`rkd pdrs`ffnahsnjad dt k`buanjad p`ur an khsd df uvrd bd sdrvhlds bdtapm`fhd

    Enrnftht ufd trs anred hftdrl`ffdxh`f nvdl paushdurs sdrvdurs WJ]! knhs nussh bds rsdnuxbd tapm`fhd f`f+HW -ZRL! E\K&&(&

    Hkpakdftd bds pr`t`l`ads M&HH& AD\ O@FLRH@FFNAHRD\ B%N\RDZH\IAds o`flth`ffnahts bNstdrhsi s`ft kuathpads 3

    Nlls nu systkd bhrdlt Nppdas < bhrdlth`fs L`fordfld nubh` Khsd df nttdftd Wrbhltho bnppda Nppda pnr ad f`k Nutmdfthohlnth`f Jnsd bd b`ffds hftdrfd pdrkdttnft adlturd dt

    lrhturd

    Jurdnu bhstnfld -knfnedr( Ja`lned pnr hbdfthohnfts b%nppdanfts -f`k dtfukr`(

    L`fvdrsh`f bd pr`t`l`ads Zdl`ffnhssnfld v`lnad Bphstned b%nppdas Btdlth`f bd pnr`ad D8>> Dfrdehstrdkdft bnppda DFTK

    pdadr dt bhltdr Ohad bnttdftd -qudud( Edsth`f bd lnrtds bnppdas Edsth`f bd an l`fohbdfthnaht Mdurds dt bntds bnppdas Hbdfthohlnth`f bnppdanfts -lnaadrhb( Hbdfthohlnth`f bnppdanfts sur nppdas df nt+

    tdftd Hftdrldpth`f bnppda -phliup( Hfsdrth`f bd kdssneds v`lnux bnfs l`ur+

    rhdas Hfternth`f bhoordfts typds bd JBB

    -Byfnkhl Zdnathkd dt \tnthl Zdnathkd( Ahstds f`hrds Fd pns brnfedr -BfB( Knlr`s Kdfu fukrhqud Kdssnedrhd \K\ \tnth`ffdkdft -pnrihfe( \ystkd bd kdfu alrnf NB\H \ystkd bd rp`fsd nut`knths hftdrnltho

    -H_Z( Rrnfsl`bned Rrnfsodrts bnppdas -nvdueads dt supdrvh+

    ss( Rrnfsodrts bnppdas a`rs bd f`f+rp`fsds Rrnfsodrts bnppdas a`rsqud ad lnfna dst `l+

    lup Rrnfskhssh`f dt rldpth`f bd tal`phds3

    Btdlth`f! dfv`h dt rldpth`f bd tal`+

    phdonx

    Kushqud b%nttdftd Kushqud bnttdftd sur

    trnfsodrts b%nppdas Hfternth`f oadxhjad bd an f`rkd KW< Adlturd nant`hrd `u ahfnhrd L`ftrad bu v`aukd Wnssdrdaads _`HW Wrp`s nut`knthqud Wrp`ss tapm`fhqud a`lnux dt bhstnfts Wrhsd bnppdas bhstnfld Wr`t`l`ad @\W Znpp`rts btnhaa bds nppdas -LBZ( Zldpth`f bnadrtds nu tapm`fd Zdlmdrlmd bdxtdfsh`fs

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    HHH& HF\RNAANRH@F DR L@FOHETZNRH@F B%N\RDZH\I

    Hfstnaanth`f knfudaadkdft

    Ralmnredr ads pnqudts fldssnhrdsNstdrhsi 3 Lur bu a`ehlhda! ld pr`ernkkd dst ad sdua vrhtnjadkdft hfbhspdfsnjad s`fo`flth`ffdkdft& Ha dst b`fl hfbhspdfsnjad bd ad talmnredr&Nstdrhsi+nbb`fs3Ld pnqudtned l`kp`rtd ad l`bd s`urld bu a`ehlhda Nstdrhsi! nhfsh qud paushdursk`buads l`kpakdftnhrds quh pduvdft sd rvadr uthads& Ha dst vhvdkdft rdl`kknfb bd ahfstnaadr&Nstdrhsi+s`ufbs3Lds k`buads s`ft o`urfhs sur paushdurs ohlmhdrs bd pnqudtned& Has o`urfhssdft ufdqunftht bd s`fs quh pduvdft trd uthahss bnfs bds kdssneds bnlludha `u p`ur shefnadr anppdanft

    bhvdrsds hfo`rknth`fs&Ahjhnx3Ldttd jhjah`tmqud bd l`bds s`urld p`ur ads l`kkufhlnth`fs uthahsnft ad pr`t`l`ad HN]fdst pns hfbhspdfsnjad& Daad dst surt`ut bdsthfd nu bvda`ppdkdft bd lahdfts HN]Ahjprh3& Ldttd jhjah`tmqud dst uthahsd p`ur nssurdr ahftdronld nvdl bhoordfts typds bd rsdnux f`f +

    HWSnptda3Ld pnqudtned l`fthdft ads pha`tds pdrkdttnft bd prdfbrd df lmnred ads lnr tds bhftdronldnvdl ads rsdnux f`f+HW

    Tfd o`hs ads talmnredkdfts tdrkhfs! `f pdut `uvrhr uf tdrkhfna! sd panldr adkp