megha aggarwal dr. (prof.) sanjay gupta school of planning ... · pdf file megha aggarwal dr....

Click here to load reader

Post on 25-Mar-2020

2 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Megha Aggarwal

    Dr. (Prof.) Sanjay Gupta

    School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi

  • Contents

    • Introduction

    • Delhi – Scenario

    • Literature Review

    • Survey Details & Findings

    • Scenario Development

    • Conclusions

  • Introduction - Background

    URBAN TRANSPORT SCENE

    • Motorization Rate (India)

    • 1991-2001 – 10%

    • 2001-2005 – 12.3%

    • 2005-2011 – 16-18%

    2010 – No. of Registered Motor

    Vehicles = 136.8 million.

    Source: SIAM (2012)

    Delhi – Highest level of motorization; as well

    as highest no. of cars (106 cars / 1000

    population; 0.31 cars per HH in 2011)

    83%

    17%

    % Cars

    Registered

    MV other

    than Cars

    Cars

  • Research Need & Objectives

    Research Need

    • There is an alarming increase in

    car ownership levels resulting in

    increased congestion levels,

    pollutions , safety issues, etc.

    • While national policies do

    emphasize on public transport

    usage there is very little thrust on

    ways to achieve restraint on car

    ownership and its usage

    • Insignificant empirical studies in

    mega cities like Delhi on measures

    to restraint car ownership and its

    use.

    Objectives of the Study

    • To review the best practices for

    restraining car ownership & usage.

    • To assess the socio-economic and

    mobility patterns of car-users.

    • To study the attitudinal behavior

    of car users in selected case study

    locations in Delhi towards using of

    cars & the deterring factors

    prohibiting their public transit

    usage.

    • To evolve alternate policies &

    strategies for restraining car

    ownership and its use.

  • Car Ownership Scenario

    • 2011 – 17.8 lakh cars (106

    cars / 1000 popn.)

    • AAGR in no. of cars –

    • 1990s – 8%p.a.

    • 2000-2010 – 13%.

    0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00

    10.00 12.00 14.00

    1 9 9 0 -9

    1

    1 9 9 1 -9

    2

    1 9 9 2 -9

    3

    1 9 9 3 -9

    4

    1 9 9 4 -9

    5

    1 9 9 5 -9

    6

    1 9 9 6 -9

    7

    1 9 9 7 -9

    8

    9 8 -9

    9

    9 9 -0

    0

    2 0 0 0 -0

    1

    2 0 0 1 -0

    2

    2 0 0 2 -0

    3

    2 0 0 3 -0

    4

    N o

    . o f

    C a rs

    ( in

    L a k

    h s)

    Year

    Car Ownership Trend - Delhi

    no. of

    cars (in

    lakhs)

    Mode Share

    • Car constituted

    almost 40% of the

    total traffic but has

    only 9% modal share. Source: RITES (2007)

    Car Usage (Car Travel Characteristics)

    • Average Trip Length by Car – 15.5 km.

    • Av. Car Utilization Rate per day – 36km. – 45 km.

    Delhi - Scenario

  • What is happening on Delhi Roads??

    Only 1 lane

    left for moving

    vehicles

    2 lanes

    encroached

    upon by parking

    Lajpat Nagar Market

    Traffic Jam at Ashram Flyover Traffic Jam at Mathura Road

    Karol Bagh Market

    More than half of the

    carriageway is under

    parking

  • Literature Review - Car Ownership

    Restraint Policy Examples:

    1. Car License Quota

    No intervention on car

    ownership policy

    Rigidly limited quota of car

    license Eg. Beijing Eg. Shanghai

    C ar

    o w

    n e rs

    h ip

    1986

    2009

    1.4 cars / 1000 pop. 0.90 cars / 1000 pop.

    220 cars / 1000 pop. 80 cars / 1000 pop.

    2. Vehicle Quota System, Singapore Fixed growth rate of car/annum

    -1990 – 3% P.A.

    - 2009 - 1.9% P.A.

    Certificate of Entitlement (Coe)

    Bidding Process

    3. Increase in Taxes on Car Price, Japan

  • Car Ownership Restraint Policies

    Licensing System Taxation (Excise

    Duty, Road Tax,

    Etc.)

    Increasing

    Interest Rate On

    Car Loans

     Have only short-term effect,

     Delays purchase of car,

     Leads to shift from higher to lower

    model of particular make

     Based on fixed saturation level for

    the city

     License plates are auctioned or

    given on certain other criteria like

    availability of parking space at

    residential area

    Relevance in Delhi’s Scenario:

    1. Fixing up of Saturation level can be done, but ensuring a transparent &

    equitable bidding system will be a challenge.

    2. Fixing up of quota according to availability of parking space at residential

    area.

    3. Increasing interest rates on car price can only be feasible if the interest

    rate is increased annually according to the increase in per-capita income.

    Expert’s Opinion:

    1. Vehicle Quota System, Resident Parking Permit Program may prove to be

    relevant and feasible for car ownership restraint in Delhi.

    • Summary:

    Literature Review - Car Ownership

    Restraint Policy (cont.)

  • Impact:

    - 32% reduction in travel times

    - 8.75 – 10 lakhs passenger / day

    - decrease in air pollution - 43% reduction in SO2, 18%

    reduction NO2, & 12% reduction in particulate matters

    - Fatality rate dropped by 42%.

    Car Use Restraint

    Examples:

    1. Congestion Charging – London, Singapore

    Impact:

    1. Total Traffic Volume

    decreased by upto

    14% in 1 year.

    2. Modal share of car

    has decreased by

    over 36% in the

    cordoned zone

    3. PT usage has

    increased by over

    30%

    CORDONED ZONE

    CONGESTION

    CHARGING

    SIGNS AT THE

    EDGE OF THE

    ZONES

    PUBLIC TELEPHONES

    WITH INTERNET

    PAYMENT OPTION

    CAMERAS

    WITHIN THE

    ZONE

    SIGNAGE & USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE CORDONED ZONE

    CHANGES IN THE VOLUME OF INBOUND

    TRAFFIC DURING THE MORNING & EVENING

    PEAK HOURS SINCE 1975.

    LOCATION OF ALS

    RESTRICTED ZONE,

    SINGAPORE

    AREA LICENSING SCHEME, SINGAPORE

    ALS RESTRICTED ZONE

    WARNING SIGN

    Impact:

    1. Total Traffic

    Volume decreased

    by upto 37% in 1

    year.

    2. Modal share of car

    decreased by over

    70% in the ALS

    zone.

    2. Oxford Park & Ride System

    Dedicated bus service from park & ride

    sites to all activity areas – segregated

    bus lanes, bus priority system

    - 2 in 5 cars shifted to the system (1.3

    million car/day less on road)

    - Modal share of bus increased from

    50% to 80% (in 12 years)

    3. Enhancing PT supply & coverage (Bogota’s Transmillenio)

    Relevance in Delhi’s Scenario:

    1. Congestion charging can be adopted in places like CP, Chandni Chowk,

    ITO which have good connectivity by metro & bus.

    2. Park & Ride strategy is highly relevant. (Park & Ride sites can be

    proposed at various regional parks, stadiums, etc. and these should be

    complemented with shuttle service to the activity area.)

    3. Enhancing PT supply & coverage would be highly relevant, if supported by

    feeder service, pedestrian pathways, state of art infrastructure, multi-

    modal integration, etc.

    Expert’s Opinion:

    1. Hiked & variable parking fees, park & ride facility, enhancing PT supply &

    coverage have been rated as relevant policies by experts. Whereas

    congestion pricing, car pool, etc. were regarded as not efficient policies

    for restraining car use.

  • Survey Details and Findings –

    Case Study Area

    • Case Study Selection criteria – Car Trip Attraction Intensities,

    access to Public Transport, Hierarchy of use zone.

    MAP: Car OD Pattern – Delhi

    (Source: RITES, 2007)

    Use Type / Activity

    Node

    Access To PT

    Bus Only Bus + Metro

    Commercial Areas South Ex. Lajpat Nagar

    G.K. Market Connaught Place

    Work Zone

    Bhikaji

    Cama

    Place

    I. P. Estate

    Nehru Place

    Saket

    Lodi Institutional Area

    Table: Case Study Selection

    Case Study - Information

    Aspect Commercial Centers

    Lajpat Nagar Connaught Place

    No. of Establishments 234 462

    Footfalls / day 16000 250000

    Parking Space 2621 E.C.S. 10326 E.C.S.

    Aspect Work Zones

    Bhikaji Cama

    Place

    I.P. Estate

    Footfalls / day 17500 15000

  • Surveys Conducted & Sample Covered

    S.No. Aspect

    1 Personal or HH Information (HH Income, Vehicle Ownership Details,

    Car usage)

    2 General Car Use (ATL, CU, Trip Purpose)

    3 Attitudinal Survey (Reason for choosing Car & not PT; willingness to

    shift to PT)

    4

    Pre