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Management : L'VOLUTION DU MODLE JAPONAIS. REGARDS CROISS FRANCO-JAPONAIS http://www.ilyfunet.com/ovni/japon/politique/509_actu.html

Longtemps admiratif dans les annes 1970-1980, le regard europen sur le management japonais devient plus critique et plus inform. Les turpitudes japonaises, conomiques institution-nelles et financires, conduisent bien des salaris prendre de la distance lgard du modle. Le succs de certaines socits trangres au Japon est expliqu en partie par leur gestion des ressources humaines.

Le poids des relations socialesLe concept de Toyotisme, souvent oppos au Fordisme, tait lloge dune performance industrielle originale et collective, suppose libre en partie des contraintes du taylorisme, fait de performance individuelle selon lorganisation scientifique du travail. Nombre danalyses de lentreprise japonaise conduisaient survoler le poids des relations sociales ; les syndicats japonais tant supposs tre soit des courroies de transmission du patronat soit des partenaires de la construction de lefficience. La ralit pourrait tre plus crue : la relation entre les partenaires sociaux au Japon, consensuelle dans son rsultat, procde comme ailleurs dun rapport de forces permanent. Le dispositif le plus frquent est le shop floor, avec affiliation et cotisation obligatoires pour les non-cadres. Avec un rsultat social assez efficace, imposant le maintien des effectifs (ou dfaut des dparts volontaires dment indemniss), et des hausses de salaire encore assez mcaniques et surtout collectives et indiffrencies.Les dterminants du modleLa dimension quasi-socitale de la performance industrielle japonaise dpasse la vision infra de lorganisation de latelier, de la dfinition des tches et de la gestion des flux. La description du modle japonais comprend la dimension supra des relations de lentreprise avec le monde extrieur. Relations verticales, avec en bas les sous-traitants, en haut lEtat, ou relations horizontales, avec le groupe, souvent dsign par keiretsuinj. Sans oublier la relation bancaire privilgie entre la banque tutrice du groupe et les entits industrielles, finances sans pression de rentabilit financire immdiate, avec des actionnaires visant le trs long terme.

Linflexion et la remise en cause du modle

Ce modle, ayant fonctionn superbement au cours des Quarante Glorieuses, subit des contraintes depuis la dcennie 1990, et se trouve dsormais remis en cause dans chacune de ses composantes comme dans sa cohrence globale. Quon en juge : les banques sont dans une situation telle quelles en viennent freiner la mutation de la seconde conomie du monde. LEtat ne pouvant nier sa part de responsabilit dans la situation actuelle, malgr les efforts de la nouvelle tutelle des services financiers, lAgence des Services Financiers.

Lentreprise, nouvelle dimension de lvolution du Japon Dans un tel contexte, lentreprise a pu sembler un havre pour le salari. Or, le modle de gestion des ressources humaines, parfois appel lescalator (il suffit de poser les pieds pour monter tous la mme vitesse) suppose un environnement conomique, financier, social et politique, qui est prcisment remis en cause. Cest ici quinterviennent les entreprises japonaises innovantes (notamment dans llectronique grand public comme Matsushita ou Sony), ou management tranger comme Nissan bien sr, mais dautres encore.

Linvention sociale et managriale de lindividuLenjeu, simple dans son expos, est complexe dans son dnouement : prendre en compte lindividu. Ce dernier ntait pas inconnu, mais ntait pas au centre des proccupations, ni de la performance, dans un systme davancement lanciennet. Cette inflexion sexerce dabord sur les lments dits accessoires de la rmunration, comme les heures supplmentaires, les bonus ou les pcules de fin de carrire. Le prochain chantier - de taille consiste - introduire lindividualisation des rmunrations et des carrires, au-del de systmes dvaluation existants, trs formels. En faisant cohabiter des gnrations dont les intrts sont en quasi-concurrence : les quadras veulent le status quo, alors que les jeunes demandent la prise en compte des performances individuelles.

Voici donc un dfi de longue haleine pour les entreprises japonaises, souvent confrontes des enjeux plus immdiats. Lobservation de lvolution des pratiques de la gestion des ressources humaines fournira une indication assez prcise du degr de mutation de lentreprise japonaise, au moment o, dans le monde, les pratiques managriales et les exigences de performance financire tendent converger.

Jean-Franois Estienne*Prsident de lAFJER (Association Franco-Japonaise pour lEtude des Retraites)

*Jean Franois Estienne publi Rforme et avenir des retraites (La documentation franaise, 20euros

Japanese management style: A brand on the verge of extinction ! http://www.ideasmakemarket.com/2013/07/japanese-management-style-brand-on.html28 July 2013

brands Japan management

AbstractJapanese management style is one of the most talked about style in management classes and boardrooms. During the booming days, Japanese products and Japanese style of management were one of the most talked about subjects in Western business circles. Today also Japanese management style is also a very common topic in B-schools case studies and corporate strategy decision making meetings but now discussion has shifted to whether is it actually the best and if so why now a days Japanese companies are hard to find in various sectors of the business where once they use to dominate. Analysis is done on how Japanese style of management has portrayed its effects on work values of different generations of workforce.

Japanese Management Style: The most desired management style of the pastTo be successful in business world, companies have to gain market share. This translates to maximization of profit earned by a business organization, and maximization of sales. A business organization for its sustenance consumes resources from nature, society and the environment that surrounds it. Thus it is liable to contribute back the environment in some manner. This was the greatest merit of Japanese Management Style; contributing back to society through business.

What is Japanese Management Style?Japanese Management philosophy talks about business ethics where the employees are loyal to the company and vice-versa. Business is not a means of only making profit for them. The employees show their loyalty by working for a single company throughout their life. The company provides job security to the employees and promotion on seniority basis. The company and its employees work as a family. Job security, the means of livelihood for the employees, is one of the major means of contributing back to the society through business.

Japanese Management Style can be explained in two aspects:

1.Human AspectThe employees are given life-time employment. Also the promotions are given on the priority of seniority or in other words, to an employee who has spent a longer time in the organization. This enhances teamwork and loyalty within the organization, but has a few drawbacks like high manpower cost. Also in todays changing world, assuming more aged employees are to be more competent is no more valid.

2.Business PhilosophyBusiness should contribute to the society. By providing employment security, the harmony between the society and business is maintained. In return, loyalty to the organization is deeply imbibed in the employees. They expect promotions based on seniority rather than individual merit.

To summarize up, the Japanese management style covers three practices on a broad level:

i. Lifetime employment

ii. Promotion and wages employees as per the seniority

iii. Loyal to the organization

iv. The other positive attributes of this system are:

v. The training given to the workers are on the expense of the organization as it is known vi. that the employees are expected to work for the company for lifetime.

vi. The inter-dependency between the company and its employees avoids activities like labor strike or union formation as both require each other for survival. This helps in maintaining healthy productivity in the organization. Thus, the employees work together to compete against the other companies to increase their market share, by improving quality, increasing productivity and even accepting smaller wages.

vii. The system of decision making was also quite prompt. The process was known as ringi and conducted through document called ringisho. The ringisho is circulated among the peers who places their hanko or takes a decision. Once all the peers review the decision, the peers manager reviews the ringisho and places his hanko and this is considered to be final.

The Japanese Management system came into existence after World War II when Japan needed to restore the economy, as a result there was more co-operation and compromise from the workers who were in need of a livelihood. Also they required job security and the company required steady labor force. Thus, it hired unskilled labor, trained them as per their future job requirement. Termination was not an issue as companies continually had a need for more workers. These conditions resulted in setting the fundamentals of Japanese Management Style.

Analysis of the Work Values of Different Generations of Workforce and EffectA research was conducted by Society of Human Resource Management to analyze the work values of workforce from diverse cohorts or generations. The report for the research conducted in the first quarter of 2009 was prepared and published as The Multigenerational Workforce. The table below lists down the unique traits of the workforce from different generations which was studied during the research:

COHORTSSTARTED CAREERCURRENT AGEDOMINANT WORK VALUE