l'hivernage viking dans les mondes francs et britanniques: introduction-bilan...

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Page 1: L'hivernage viking dans les mondes francs et britanniques: Introduction-Bilan historiographique-Présentation des sources disponibles-Bibliographie

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'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf

êk`jrf rfgafrgaf fd ajst`jrf kêojêvnbfGarjst`paf OFV_WGA-OVK@BJD - Vdjvfrsjtê of Gnfd Cnssf-D`rkndojf Ojr! "jfrrf C#VOVJD

Jdtr`ougtj d

Cjbnd ajst rj`lrnpajquf

]rêsfdtntj`d ofs s`urgfs ojsp`djcbfs

Cjcbj`lrnpajf

© 3=>6 Garjst`paf Ofutsga-Ouk`bjd - ]nlf > sur ?>

Page 2: L'hivernage viking dans les mondes francs et britanniques: Introduction-Bilan historiographique-Présentation des sources disponibles-Bibliographie

7/21/2019 L'hivernage viking dans les mondes francs et britanniques: Introduction-Bilan historiographique-Présentation des sources disponibles-Bibliographie

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_ncbf ofs kntjárfsJdtr`ougtj`d.....................................................................................................................................................7

N- Cjbnd ajst`rj`lrnpajquf........................ ............................ ........................... ........................... ....... ...... ....... .1 N->. ^ufbqufs êtuofs h`donkfdtnbfs.....................................................................................................................1

N-3. Vdf rfoêg`uvfrtf of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl.............................................................................................................>> N-7. n !r`ougtj`d udjvfrsjtnjrf g`dtfk!`rnjdf....................................................................................................>" N-". #`d`lrn!ajfs .............................................................................................................................................>$

C- ]rêsfdtntj`d ofs s`urgfs ojsp`djcbfs.......................................................................................................37%->. &`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs................................................................................................................................37%-3. &`urgfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs...............................................................................................................................3

`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs..................................................................................................................................77&j( s`urgfs dnrrntjvfs g`dtfk!`rnjdfs of rêhêrfdgf.............................................................................................77&`urgfs dnrrntjvfs g`dtfk!`rnjdfs g`k!bêkfdtnjrfs............................................................................................77&`urgf dnrrntjvf !`stêrjfurf g`k!bêkfdtnjrf.......................................................................................................7"&`urgf anlj`lrn!ajquf g`dtfk!`rnjdf g`k!bêkfdtnjrf.......................................................................................7"

`urgfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs.................................................................................................................................7!&jtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs sjtuês fd )rndgf..................................................................................................................7*&jtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs sjtuês fd Ndlbftfrrf.............................................................................................................7*

Cjcbj`lrnpajf..................................................................................................................................................7"+uvrnlfs lêdêrnu(.............................................................................................................................................7&,dta sfs rêlj`dnbfs..........................................................................................................................................7tuofs taêkntjqufs............................................................................................................................................71#`d`lrn!ajfs ajst`rjqufs ft nrgaê`b`ljqufs.........................................................................................................7$

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Jdtr`ougtj`d

Êtuojfr b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fd @ggjofdt pr`kft o'êtuojfr bfs ojhhêrfdts k`kfdts `ubfs vjijdls pnssárfdt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d sur bfs tfrrjt`jrfs quj pfuvfdt têk`jldfr of bfurngtjvjtê. Jb fst p`ssjcbf of o`ddfr ojvfrsfs oêhjdjtj`ds í b'ajvfrdnlf, knjs quj prfddfdtt`utfs bn k kf ojrfgtj`d, ft quj s'fdrjgajssfdt kutufbbfkfdt. !jdsj, bn d tj`do'" ajvfrdnlf # fst nvndt t`ut jssuf ou vfrcf " ajvfrdfr #. $`ur bf ojgtj`ddnjrf %nr`ussf," ajvfrdfr # sjldjhjf " pnssfr b'ajvfr í b'ncrj #. %f sfds lêdêrnb ou vfrcf pfut nb`rs trf

g`dsjoêrê of kndjárf pbus bnrlf & " ajvfrdfr # pfut trf npprêafdoê nu sfds strjgt ofpnssfr b'ajvfr fd qufbquf bjfu, knjs p`rtf êlnbfkfdt ud sfds knrjtjkf trás pr`d`dgê, ` bfs cntfnu( pnssfdt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d fd rfb)gaf onds ud bjfu ncrjtê, ft fdhjd ud sfdsêg`d`kjquf, nvfg b'nrr t ofs ngtjvjtês ancjtufbbfs pfdondt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d.

*fprfd`ds gfttf oêhjdjtj`d onds bf gnorf of d`trf su+ft. %'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl g`rrfsp`doo`dg o'nc`ro nu( pêrj`ofs ` bfs vjijdls pnssnjfdt b'ajvfr onds ud fdor`jt o`ddê, `u pbusprêgjsêkfdt nu( pêrj`ofs ` vjijdls ft bfurs cntfnu( pnssnjfdt b'ajvfr fd rfb)gaf onds udbjfu ncrjtê, df p`uvndt pbus prfdorf bn kfr. dhjd, pnr f(tfdsj`d, b'êtuof of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl pfut trf g`dsjoêrê g`kkf b'êtuof ofs pêrj`ofs ` bfs vjijdls gfssnjfdt bfurs

ngtjvjtês ancjtufbbfs, í snv`jr udf ngtjvjtê jtjdêrndtf of pjbbnlf, p`ur s'ncrjtfr onds ud bjfuo`ddê ourndt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d. -`ut gfgj sf g`kprfdo cjfd êvjofkkfdt sj b'`d ng`dsgjfdgf ofs ojhhjgubtês of bn dnvjlntj`d fd anutf kfr nu /`=fd >lf, quj ofvjfddfdtf(tr kfs pfdondt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d & gf df s`dt pns sfubfkfdt bfs cntfnu( vjijdls, knjsb'fdsfkcbf of bn dnvjlntj`d anuturjárf quj fst lêdêrnbfkfdt suspfdouf. d têk`jldfdt pnrf(fkpbf bn Xjtn Knrtjdj of 3`rtudnt &

« Bfs knts ofs dnvjrfs sur bn kfr s`dt dus ¹ 7,

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sjbb`ddfr bfs pbnjdfs bjqujofs ft quf b'#$ nd fkp%$af bf $`kkfr$f nvf$ bfs Crft`ds&&& ¹<.

5nd 9jbb, of b'udjvfrsjtê o'@sb`, bf g`dhjrkf onds s`d nrtjgbf 6nvjrfs ft dnvjlntj`d fd#$$jofdt b' p`quf vj(jdl &

« )'npr*s bfs s`ur$fs $rjtfs ou anut K`+fd lf ft of bn jd of $fttf p rj`of, jb nppnrn.t qu'jb ofvnjt%trf $`urndt o'nttfdorf bf /fnu tfkps nvndt of $`kkfd$fr bf v`+nlf pfdondt ofs p rj`ofs$`dsjo rn/bfkfdt pbus b`dlufs ¹ ".

2ftbfv bbkfrs êv`quf êlnbfkfdt bf su+ft nu sfjd of s`d nrtjgbf =n fd/nu ? ;trnougtj`d & Bn$`dstru$tj`d ofs p`rts 4, fd pnrbndt of b'êv`butj`d of bn g`dstrugtj`d of sjtfs p`rtunjrfs nu/`=fd >lf. $`ur buj, jb fst nb`rs jdojspfdsncbf o'ajvfrdfr, knjs êlnbfkfdt of ojsp`sfr o'udbjfu p`ur nssurfr b'fdtrftjfd ft b'ajvfrdnlf ofs dnvjrfs &

" = fd sjdo ojf &&&7 udfrb bj$afd &&&7, jst 6r ofd Cnu, ojf 8nrtudl udo ojf </fr1jdtfrudl v`d :$aj fd 5u s`rlfd udo ofrfd :$aut5 v`r :turk udo 8fbbfd &&&75u frk9lbj$afd #;pnlf 70M. -rnougtj`d & " Bfs p`rts s`dt jdojspfdsn/bfs 27 p`ur nssurfr b'fdtrftjfd ft b'ajvfrdnlfofs dnvjrfs ft bfs pr`t lfr $`dtrf bn tfkp%tf ft bfs vnlufs &&&7 #4

!ussj f(gfbbfdts knrjds bfs vjijdls êtnjfdt jbs, jbs sucjssfdt êlnbfkfdt gfttf b`j of bndnvjlntj`d snjs`ddjárf, g`kkf fd têk jldfdt bfs /`nta`usfs qu'jbs êbfvnjfdt fdNgndojdnvjf nhjd of pr`têlfr bfurs dnvjrfs of b'ajvfr, ft quj `dt êtê êtuojês pnr 3rnds !rdfNt=bflnr ft @bjvfr CrjkkM &

" ;t Xf, taf pbn$f-dnkf Nijcfrfjo 4`r Nijcfrfjs 0 kn+ nbbuof t` n lntafrjdl-pbn$f 1jtajd tafsijprfjof `r pfranps t` n bfjondl /`nta`usf& Mdoffo, n$$`rojdl t` b`$nb trnojtj`d, :(j/frfjs 1ns taf pbn$f 1afrf pf`pbf jd taf `bo on+s usfo t` pubb vfssfbs nsa`rf ndo jdt` safos `r taf 1jdtfr& #;pnlf <:1. -rnougtj`d & " N Xf, bf d`k of bjfuNijcfrfjo 4`u Nijcfrfjs 0 pfut njrf nbbusj`d ud bjfuof rnssfk/bfkfdt onds bf sijprfjof `u pfut-%trf ud andlnr /ntfnu! bj nu s+st*kf %fjondl& df ft, sfb`d bn trnojtj`d b`$nbf,Nijcfrfjs tnjt b'fdor`jt quf bfs pfrs`ddfs utjbjsnjfdt onds bfs tfkpsnd$jfds p`ur tjrfr bfs /ntfnu! tfrrf ft bGn/rj p`ur b'ajvfr& #

!jdsj, bfs prfkjárfs jdgursj`ds vjijdls onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf s`dt t`utfsnjs`ddjárfs. !vfg bf prjdtfkps, bfs dnvjrfs vjijdls qujttnjfdt bfs tfrrfs sgndojdnvfs p`urnppnrnGtrf í b'a`rjO`d of bn 3rndgjf ft of b'!dlbftfrrf. Jbs pjbbfdt nb`rs bfs tfrrfs nc`roês, fdb`dlfndt bfs gFtfs `u fd rfk`dtndt bfs rjvjárfs lr)gf nu hnjcbf tjrndt o'fnu of bfurs cntfnu(,pujs rfpnrtfdt nu oêcut of b'ajvfr, ft s`dt rfdtrês onds bfurs p`rts o'nttngaf, ` jbspnssfr`dt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d í b'ncrj. %fs jdgursj`ds sf kubtjpbjfdt, knjs bfs cntfnu( vjijdls nrrjvfdt t`u+`urs onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf nu prjdtfkps, p`ur rfpnrtjrnvndt b'ajvfr. ! b'fkc`ugaurf of bn %`jrf, rkfdtnjrf, k`jdf ou k`dnstárf 6`jrk`utjfroêcutf bf rêgjt of bn b`dluf hujtf of sn g`kkudnutê ft of bfurs rfbjqufs fd rng`dtndtg`kkfdt, onds ud prfkjfr tfkps, sfs hrárfs df pnssnjfdt quf b'êtê í b'ncrj sur bf g`dtjdfdt.Jbs df rft`urdnjfdt sur b'Gbf of 6`jrk`utjfr, ` s'êbfvnjt bfur k`dnstárf, quf b`rsqufb'nljtntj`d ofs kfrs o'nut`kdf sjldjhjnjt bn hjd of bn kfdngf o'udf nttnquf vjijdl.

« t a`$ qunbjtntfs tfkp`rjs f!jlfdtf, nfstjv` qujppf tfkp`rf, qu` dnvjlndoj nrrjoft tfkpfrjfs, )fns k`dnstfrjuk, qu`o `/ a`$ ufrnt $`dstru$tuk, pftfdtfs, ajfkjs tndtukk`o` tfkp`rf,

< 3% ?*J@- %ê`d, %@H!L'A/ ?* 5fnd pjfrrf, $*!- %`ujs, *êgjts ft $ ákfs gfbtjqufs, $nrjs, 7 E0, p.<0I9J%%, 5nd, " 6nvjrfs ft dnvjlntj`d fd @ggjofdt í b'êp`quf vjijdl #, jd 3%!/9!*2, !ddf /nrjf, A *JLA *, ;ojr.4 %npr`lrfssj`d ofs 8jijdls, ofs rnjos í bn g`b`djsntj`d, p. I0

1 %%/ *N 2ftbfv, " Anhfdcnu #, jd %J62C* 6, ?tn ;ojr.4, ur`p js$af tf$adj( jk kjttfbnbtfr, OFF /js >?FF,Hrnojtj`d udo Mdd`vntj`d, 9frbjd, Cfcr. /ndd 8frbnl, 7 :, p. 70M 770

M N-B% C!*, 3rnds !rdf, C*J//, @bjvfr, " 9 nta`usfs jd 6`rtafrd ur`pf ndo taf 6`rta !tbndtjg #, jd*JLA!*2N@6, /jrndon, Mdtfrdntj dnb L`urdnb ` Anutj$nb ;r$anf`b`l+ 43FFJ0, v`b. I1 <, (h`ro, 9bngiKfbb,<00M, p. <MI <:E

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=fruk jdsubnk rfpftf/ndt& ¹ E

4Hrnou$tj`dI « ]r` jtndt ofs n$jbjt s of dnvjlntj`d qu'` rf b' t , jbs sf rfdonjfdt nu k`dnst*rf of ) ns $`dstrujt p`ur rf ulf ft rfvfdnjfdt sfubfkfdt b'ajvfr A jrk`utjfr ¹0

Lfttf ojhhjgubtê of dnvjlufr ourndt bn knuvnjsf snjs`d, quj df pfrkft nu( vjijdls ofrênbjsfr bfurs pjbbnlfs qu'fdtrf bf prjdtfkps ft b'nut`kdf ft quj sjldjhjf bfur dêgfssnjrfoêpnrt ofs tfrrfs garêtjfddfs, rfstf onds t`us bfs fsprjts. %`rsquf bfs vjijdls pnssfr`dtb'ajvfr p`ur bn prfkjárf h`js sur bfs tfrrfs of bfurs jdgursj`ds, bn surprjsf fst snds êlnb.-`us bfs nddnbjstfs n=ndt g`ddnjssndgf of gft êvêdfkfdt bf rfbntfdt onds bfurs êgrjts & p`urbn prfkjárf h`js, bfs vjijdls ajvfrdfdt fd !dlbftfrrf, onds bn vnbbêf of bn %`jrf, onds bn vnbbêf of bn Nfjdf... %f paêd`kádf of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl nppnrnGt, ft b'ajst`jrf ofsjdgursj`ds vjijdls prfdo udf d`uvfbbf nkpbfur.

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6`us s`uanjt`ds êtuojfr b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fd @ggjofdt o`dg, knjs pbusprêgjsêkfdt, g`kptf tfdu of b'êtfdouf ou tfrrjt`jrf ` hurfdt ngtjhs bfs vjijdls, b'êtuojfrnu ofbí of d`s hr`dtjárfs dntj`dnbfs ngtufbbfs. Jb pnrnGt pfrtjdfdt of s'jdtêrfssfr í gfttfqufstj`d sur udf njrf tfrrjt`rjnbf ` , pnrt`ut, bfs jdtfrvfdtj`ds vjijdls prjrfdtsfdsjcbfkfdt bf k kf sfds. !jdsj, jb fst pfrtjdfdt o'f(gfptfr bfs ngtjvjtês vjijdls ojts

vnrálufs fd ur`pf of b'fst ft fd @rjfdt, quf d`us g`ddnjss`ds fdg`rf knb ft quj sfkcbfdtnv`jr prjs udf h`rkf ojhhêrfdtf of gfbbfs ofs rnjos ft tfdtntjvfs of g`b`djsntj`d quf d`usg`ddnjss`ds fd ur`pf garêtjfddf. 2f k kf, b'ngtjvjtê vjijdl purfkfdt g`b`djsntrjgf fttnrojvf vfrs bf lrndo d`ro df sfkcbf pns nv`jr bfs k kfs k`=fds ft hjdnbjtês quf gfbbfs qujnkfdárfdt b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fd @ggjofdt garêtjfd. %f g`dsjoêrndt, jb sfrnjt nb`rsjdtêrfssndt o'êtuojfr b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds gf vnstf @ggjofdt garêtjfd quj t`ugaf íb'fkpjrf 3rndg, nu k`dof crjtnddjquf, í b'njrf o'jdhbufdgf jrbndonjsf, +usqu'í b' spnldfkusubkndf ` b'`d rfbávf êlnbfkfdt qufbqufs rnjos vjijdls. 6êndk`jds, ft surt utg`dsjoêrndt b'nkcjtj`d of gfttf prfkjárf nddêf of knstfr, jb sfkcbf ojhhjgjbf ft of b`dlufanbfjdf o'êtuojfr bfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs jrbndonjsfs ft kusubkndfs, quj rfstfdtrfbntjvfkfdt `rjljdnbfs. Jb sfrn pfut trf jdtêrfssndt o'nc`rofr gfs ofu( njrfs

lê`lrnpajqufs onds ud sfg`do tfkps, knjs jb fst pbus snlf nu+`uro'auj of bjkjtfr gfttfêtuof í b'njrf o'jdhbufdgf ou k`dof hrndg ft ndlb` sn(`d, quj nss`gjf a`k`lêdêjtê of sfsh`rkfs p`bjtjqufs g`kkf a`k`lêdêjtê of sfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs. 6`us s`uanjt`dso`dg êtuojfr b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf.

Êtuojfr ft g`kprfdorf udf d`tj`d ofkndof ud dêgfssnjrf rfgub p`ur nc`rofr bfsg`dstndtfs ft bfs êv`butj`ds, bfs lêdêrnbjtês ft bfs pnrtjgubnrjtês ou su+ft. 2êhjdjr bfsoêbjkjtntj`ds gar`d`b`ljqufs of gfttf êtuof pfut pnrnGtrf nb`rs sjkpbf & d`us = rfprfdor`dt

: $@?$!*2J6, *fdê, K`dukfdts of b'ajst`jrf ofs n//n+fs :njdt-]ajbj/frt 4A`jrk`utjfr, rndobjfu, H`urdus0o'npr*s bfs d`tfs o';rtaur jr+ , êo. $jgnro ft hjbs, $nrjs, 7 0M 2 %A@// !? %`ujs, 9@?AJ * Lbnuof, Xjf ft kjrn$bfs of :njdt-]ajb/frt pnr rkfdtnjrf , êo. %fs nkjs ofb'Gbf of 6`jrk`utjfr, 6`jrk`utjfr, 7 , p. I

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bfs bjkjtfs ancjtufbbfs of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl, no`ptêfs pnr t`us nu+`uro'auj. 6`us êtuojfr`dsb'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl of bfur prfkjárf nppnrjtj`d lufrrjárf rfbfvêf pnr bfs s`urgfso`gukfdtnjrfs, í $`rtbndo fd E , +usqu'í bn hjd of b'fkprjsf ond`jsf fd !dlbftfrrf fd70:: nvfg bn oêhnjtf of Anrnbo JJJ of 6`rválf í bn cntnjbbf of Nntkh`ro 9rjolf ft bng`dqu tf ou pn=s pnr Cujbbnukf bf L`dquêrndt, êvádfkfdts quj têk`jldfdt of bn hjd ofsrnjos vjijdls fd @ggjofdt p`ur ofs v`=nlfs ft ofs lufrrfs of g`dqu tfs tfrrjt`rjnbfs nu(

k`=fds ft hjdnbjtês ojhhêrfdtfs. %'npprêafdsj`d of gf su+ft of rfgafrgaf, b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdlonds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf fdtrf E ft 70::, oêhjdjt bf gnorf of d`trf êtuof.Lfttf rêhbf(j`d sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl ofvrnjt fdrjgajr of kndjárf trás jdtêrfssndtf d`trfg`ddnjssndgf of bfur ajst`jrf.

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2nds ud prfkjfr tfkps d`us p`urr`ds njdsj tfdtfr of kfttrf t`utf bn bukjárf surgfttf d`tj`d o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, rfbntjvfkfdt pfu g`dduf. 2'nc`ro, p`urqu`j nppnrnGt jb ] !u ofbí ofs ojhhjgubtês of dnvjlntj`d, p`urqu`j ajvfrdfr onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf ] dsujtf, g`kkfdt sf oêvfb`ppf gf paêd`kádf, ofs prfkjárfs jdgursj`ds nu(lrndos rnjos ou J^ ákf sjágbf ] dhjd, ` sf oêvfb`ppf b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, fdtrf r`=nukfsgnr`bjdljfds ft r`=nukfs ndlb` sn(`ds ]2nds ud sfg`do tfkps, d`us p`urr`ds npprêafdofr b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl pnr bn kubtjpbjgjtêofs sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, f(prfssj`ds k kf ou paêd`kádf of d`trf êtuof. 6`usp`uv`ds rfprfdorf udf ndnb=sf lê`lrnpajquf p`ur r=takfr gfttf ndnb=sf. Sufbbf sjtuntj`dlê`p`bjtjquf `u g`kkfrgjnbf p`ur bfs sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl ] Sufb sjtf ga`jsj fdsujtf,jdsubnjrf `u tfrrfstrf ] Sufbbfs strugturfs fdhjd p`ur b'êtncbjssfkfdt ou gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf,

dnturfbbfs `u ndtar`pjqufs ]2nds ud tr`jsjákf tfkps, d`us tfdtfr`ds of kfttrf í pr`hjt b'êtuof of b'ajvfrdnlf p`urfdtrfr nu pbus prás bn rênbjtê k kf ofs vjijdls, " fd rfb)gaf #. Su'fst gf qu'ud sjtfo'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, sjd`d o'nc`ro ud rfhulf, ` s'ncrjtfr ofs jdtfkpêrjfs g`kkf ofsêvfdtufbbfs nttnqufs fddfkjfs. L'fst fdsujtf ud fdtrfpFt, `u rnssfkcbfr bf hrujt ofspjbbnlfs, knjs nussj b'nppr`vjsj`ddfkfdt of bn tr`upf p`ur b'ajvfr. dhjd ud bjfu of vjf,pfut trf `uvfrt nu( êgandlfs auknjd, nu g`kkfrgf pnr f(fkpbf ]

Lfs ojhhêrfdtfs nppr`gafs d`us pfrkfttr`dt o'nv`jr ud rflnro +ustf ft lb`cnb surb'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf, nu trnvfrs ofs sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf./njs g'fst fd nbbndt nu ofbí of gfttf jknlf quf d`us p`urr ds rêfbbfkfdt snjsjr bfpaêd`kádf of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, jb hnut rfkfttrf gfttf jknlf fd bjfd í s`d êp`quf, nhjd ofg`kprfdorf bn pbngf qu'n fu b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds b'ajst`jrf ou prfkjfr /`=fd >lf. ?dfsfg`dof pnrtjf of gfttf êtuof sf g`dgfdtrfrn sur gfs rêhbf(j`ds.2nds ud prfkjfr tfkps, d`us p`urr`ds g`dsjoêrfr bf paêd`kádf of b'ajvfrdnlf onds bfsrfbntj`ds fdtrf vjijdls ft p`uv`jr hrndgs ft crjtnddjqufs. 2nds qufbbfs g`dojtj`ds sf s`dthnjtfs b'jdstnbbntj`d ou gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf o'nc`ro ] $ujs qufbbf pbngf n fu b'ajvfrdnlf, fdtrftfdsj`ds ft g`dhbjts kjbjtnjrfs o'udf pnrt, knjs êlnbfkfdt fdtrf êgandlfs ft jdstnbbntj`dsourncbfs o'nutrf pnrt ]2nds ud sfg`do tfkps, fst gf quf b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl n fu ofs rêpfrgussj`ds ourncbfs onds

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b'ajst`jrf ou prfkjfr /`=fd >lf ] %'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl d'n t'jb pns í bn h`js pfrkjs nu( vjijdls of kubtjpbjfr bfs pjbbnlfs, knjs t`ut fd ofvfdndt vubdêrncbf ] @u qufbbf n êtê bnpbngf of b'ajvfrdnlf onds b'ajst`jrf ofs h`rtjhjgntj`ds kêojêvnbfs pnr f(fkpbf ]dhjd, onds ud ofrdjfr tfkps, jb pfut trf jdtêrfssndt of pr`p`sfr of d`uvfnu( n(fso'êtuofs, pfrkfttndt of prêgjsfr ft ofdsjhjfr d`s g`ddnjssndgfs sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, knjspr`p`sndt êlnbfkfdt of sf p`sfr of d`uvfbbfs qufstj`ds.

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N- Cjbnd ajst`rj`lrnpajquf

%`rsquf b'`d nc`rof b'êtuof of b'ajst`jrf ojtf " vjijdl #, udf lrndof ojvfrsjtê sfkcbfsf oêlnlfr ofs `uvrnlfs êgrjts ft pucbjês ofpujs quf b'ajst`jrf fst ofvfduf udf sgjfdgf vêrjtncbf. 6êndk`jds, udf gfrtnjdf êv`butj`d ajst`rj`lrnpajquf pfut sf oêlnlfr,têk`jldndt of bn ojvfrsjtê ofs êg`bfs ajst`rjqufs ft quj n pfrkjs onds s`d jdtêlrnbjtê ofhnjrf pr`lrfssfr d`trf g`ddnjssndgf of b'ajst`jrf. %'êv`butj`d ofs rflnros ft ofs êtuofs surb'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fst jdtjkfkfdt bjêf í gfttf trnojtj`d ajst`rj`lrnpajquf & s`d êtuof fstnb`rs dêgfssnjrf p`ur t`ut trnvnjb sf v`ubndt grjtjquf ft sgjfdtjhjquf.

N->. ^ufbqufs tuofs h`donkfdtnbfs

%n g`ddnjssndgf of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl d`us vjfdt o'nc ro of Ngndojdnvjf, cfrgfnu ofgfttf s`gjêtêE. %'êb`jldfkfdt lê`lrnpajquf, knjs êlnbfkfdt ofs cnrrjárfs bjdlujstjqufs,gubturfbbfs `u k kf ajst`rj`lrnpajqufs ;bf k`dof vjijdl fst êtuojê pnr ofs gafrgafurskêojêvjstfs í b'`ufst of b' ur`pf, tndojs qu'jb fst ou o`knjdf ofs prêajst`rjfds fdNgndojdnvjf4, d'`dt pns hnv`rjsê fd 6`rválf, fd Nuáof ft nu 2ndfknri b'êtuof of of gfssgndojdnvfs pnrtjs vfrs bf k`dof 3rndg ft ndlb` sn(`d. L'fst sfubfkfdt í bn hjd ou ^J^ ákf

sjágbf quf b'ajst`jrf vjijdl tr`uvf sn pbngf, lr)gf í b'jkp`rtndt trnvnjb ou ond`js 5`anddfsNtfddstrup, quj pucbjf fdtrf 7E : ft 7EE< sfs quntrf jkp`sndts v`bukfs jdtjtubês A`rknddfrdf D ;trno. & Bfs A`rkndos 4.Nujtf í gfttf prfkjárf o=dnkjquf jssuf of bn Ngndojdnvjf, ofu( êtuofs h`donkfdtnbfs surb'ajst`jrf vjijdl v`dt trf êgrjtfs í b'`ufst, onds bfs rêlj`ds " vjgtjkfs # ofs rnjos vjijdls.d !dlbftfrrf, Lanrbfs 3rndgjs Wfnr= pucbjf fd 7E 7 Haf vj(jdls jd 8fstfrd @arjstfdo`k,

;& )& IOD t` ;& )& OOO>F, ` jb prêsfdtf udf prfkjárf gnrtf oêtnjbbêf ofs jdgursj`ds vjijdlsonds bfs r`=nukfs garêtjfds. N`d trnvnjb ndd`dgf b'ud ofs `uvrnlfs bfs pbus g`dsêqufdtsp`ur b'ajst`jrf vjijdl fd @ggjofdt, onds bf sfds ` fbbf hut udf vêrjtncbf h`dontj`d nokjsfpnr t`us ft d`d g`dtfstêf pfdondt b`dltfkps. !jdsj, fd !bbfknldf, _nbtafr 8`lfb s`utjfdt sn taásf )jf A`rknddfd udo ons r d(js$af fj$a /js 5ur r6doudl ofr A`rknd>ojf 4IDD-D>>0 77, í b'udjvfrsjtê of 9frbjd fd 7 0:. !trnvfrs bfs hr`dtjárfs, í trnvfrs bfs sjágbfs, jb n pu g`dstjtufr ud h`dos g`kkud sur bfqufbs'fst g`dstrujtf t`utf b'êtuof of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl fd êtncbjssndt bfs prjdgjpnbfs o`ddêfsspntj` tfkp`rfbbfs, êvádfkfdtjfbbfs, ft fd jdjtjndt bfs prfkjárfs ndnb=sfs o'êv`butj`d ft ofg`kprêafdsj`d of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl. bbf rfhbátf bf g`urndt p`sjtjvjstf ft bf s`ugj o'êtncbjrofs hnjts ft bfur gar`d`b`ljf. d gfbn, d`us ojsp`s`ds nu+`uro'auj o'udf vnstf s=dtaásfknrqundt bfs ontfs ft bjfu( ofs prjdgjpnu( ajvfrdnlfs vjijdls g`ddus, ft bfs lrndofs`pêrntj`ds kjbjtnjrfs quj bfurs s`dt bjêfs. Nj b'`d df pfut qu'nokjrfr bf trnvnjb rênbjsê pnr _nbtafr 8`lfb, jb hnut knblrê t`ut fd s`ubjldfr bfs bjkjtfs & gfbbfs o'udf " ajst`jrf cntnjbbf #, o'udf ajst`jrf êvádfkfdtjfbbf, sf bjkjtndt tr`p s`uvfdt í bn sjkpbf êv`gntj`d ofshnjts. Lfttf êtuof fst nu+`uro'auj ndgjfddf, fbbf hut bn prfkjárf of s`d lfdrf & fbbf d'n pu

E W%VNX , Jcfd Nijcstfo, " *fsfnrga ajst`r=, s kf g`kkfdts #, jd W%VNX , Jcfd Nijcstfo ;ojr.4, Xj(jdl trnofndo sfttbfkfdt jd $`dtjdfdtnb 1fstfrd ur`pf, /usfuk -usgubnduk $rfss, ?djvfrsjt= `h L`pfdanlufd, <070,p. 7E

N- 6N-*?$, 5`anddfs L. A. *., A`rknddfrdf , W+\cfdanvd, Wbfjd, 7EE<, 1 v`b.70 W !*B, Lanrbfs 3.,Haf vj(jdls jd 1fstfrd $arjstfdo`k, ;& )& IOD t` ;&)& OOO, ?dKjd, %`do`d, 7E 7, M 7 p.77 8@C %, _nbtafr, )jf A`rknddfd udo ons r d(js$af fj$a /js 5ur r6doudl ofr A`rkndojf 4IDD-D>>0 ,

Ngjfdtjn 8frbnl, 7 0:

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êvjtfr gfrtnjdfs frrfurs, gfrtnjds `ucbjs, ft d'n pu f(pb`jtfr quf bfs s`urgfs " `hhjgjfbbfs #,nddnbfs ft gar`djqufs, snds vêrjtncbf grjtjquf of s`urgfs k`dnstjqufs prêsfdtndt t`us bfsnrgaêt=pfs of b'jknljdnjrf vjijdl. !jdsj, bfs ajvfrdnlfs df s`dt luárf pbus êv`quês qufg`kkf têk`jd o'udf prêsfdgf o`ddêf, í ud k`kfdt o`ddê, ofs pjbbnros quf b'`d nppfbnjt vjijdls. 6êndk`jds, gfttf êtuof d`us h`urdjt udf prfkjárf gar`d`b`ljf ofs prjdgjpnu(ajvfrdnlfs, sur bnqufbbf pfut sf g`dstrujrf gfttf êtuof.

%fs oêgfddjfs quj suggêoárfdt í gft jkp`rtndt trnvnjb of _nbtafr 8`lfb fdtrnjdárfdtud gfrtnjd fdl`ufkfdt p`ur bf k`dof vjijdl onds bfs ojvfrsfs rêlj`ds ` jb hnbbut buttfrg`dtrf fu(. $busjfurs nutfurs fdtrfprjrfdt nb`rs of rfprfdorf bfs jdh`rkntj`ds h`urdjfs pnr _nbtafr 8`lfb nhjd of bfs prêgjsfr, ft o'fd h`urdjr udf d`uvfbbf ndnb=sf. d 3rndgf,3frojdndo %`t prêpnrnjt udf jkp`rtndtf êtuof sur bfs vjijdls qundo _nbtafr 8`lfbs`utfdu sn taásf. Nfs trnvnu( p`stêrjfurs d`us `hhrfdt dêndk`jds of d`kcrfusfs êtuofssur bfs jdvnsj`ds vjijdl, trás prêgjsfs ft g`kpbátfs & bfs f(fkpbfs s`dt trás d`kcrfu(, knjsd`us p`urr`ds gjtfr b'udf of sfs prfkjárfs ft pbus hnkfusfs g`dtrjcutj d, Bn lrndofjdvnsj`d d`rkndof of OJE-OE3 7<, pucbjêf fd 7 0E pnr bn 9jcbj`taáquf of bQÊg`bf ofsLanrtfs. N'jb g`dstrujt udf ajst`jrf vjijdl sur bf tfrrjt`jrf of bn 3rndgf pbus +ustf, ft pbus

prêgjsf, s'jb g`rrjlf k kf qufbqufs frrfurs of _nbtafr 8`lfb, g'fst bfs o`ddêfs pucbjêfs pnrgf ofrdjfr qu'jb rêutjbjsf t`u+`urs g`kkf h`dofkfdt, snds rfkjsf fd gnusf lêdêrnbf, ft sndsf(pb`jtfr í s`d t`ur of d`uvfbbfs s`urgfs. !jdsj, g`dgfrdndt d`trf su+ft, 3frojdndo %`t nêv`quê, prêgjsê, g`rrjlê, bfs prjdgjpnu( ajvfrdnlfs vjijdls qu'nvnjt nvndgê _nbtafr 8`lfb,ft s'fst jdtêrfssê í udf grjtjquf ofs s`urgfs p`ur fd oêlnlfr gfrtnjdfs vêrjtês, knjs t`ut fdrfstndt t`u+`urs onds udf pr`cbêkntjquf o'ajst`jrf êvádfkfdtjfbbf. N`d Zuvrf o'ajst`rjfdrfstf pr`h`doêkfdt bjêf í bn trnojtj`d ajst`rj lrnpajquf of s`d tfkps. %n prfkjárfgar`d`b`ljf ofs ajvfrdnlfs quf d`us p`ssêoj`ds sf tr`uvf g`dhjrkêf ft prêgjsêf,d`tnkkfdt p`ur bfs rêlj`ds ou r`=nukf hrndg of b'`ufst.

6`us êv`qufr`ds êlnbfkfdt jgj of 5nd of _rjfs 7I, quj hut b'ud ofs prfkjfrs í pr`p`sfr fd7 <I udf grjtjquf gntêl`rjquf ofs s`urgfs k`dnstjqufs, ft o`dg udf rêvjsj`d of bn hjlurfou vjijdl, knjs fd rfstndt trás bjê í udf gfrtnjdf suc+fgtjvjtê o'`rjfdtntj`d pndlfrkndjstfquj +fttf udf `kcrf sur s`d trnvnjb. %'nddêf sujvndtf, jdnr 5`rnds`d nkfdnjt í s`d t`urud rflnro d`uvfnu sur b'ajst`jrf vjijdl, fd pucbjndt fd 7 <1 Haf )ndflfbo jd ^rnd$f , udêtuof s'jdtêrfssndt nu( " vjgtjkfs # ofs vjijdls fd 3rndgf, pnr b'êtuof ofs rndU`ds ft ofstrjcuts nttrjcuês pnr bfs p`pubntj`ds b`gnbfs nu( vjijdls. Lfs ofu( ofrdjárfs êtuofs dft`ugafdt pns jkkêojntfkfdt í b'êtuof of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, knjs = rfstf trás êtr`jtfkfdtbjêfs, nkfdndt b'jdtêr t o'êtuojfr bfs jdtfrngtj`ds fdtrf vjijdls ft p`pubntj`ds b`gnbfs, ft quj`dt pnrh`js fu bjfu onds bf g`dtf(tf o'ud ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. 3frdndo 8frgnutfrfdnppr`h`dojrn bn qufstj`d of gfs jdtfrngtj`ds í d`uvfnu fd 7 IM, @`kkfdt s'fst-`d o fdounu M!f sj*$bf, onds b' kpjrf rnd$, $`dtrf bfs Mdvnsj`ds A`rkndofs S , ft nppr`gaf o`dg bfs vjijdls fd êtuojndt bf rflnro k kf of bfurs " vjgtjkfs #, nu sfjd ofs p`pubntj`ds b`gnbfs.%n Ngndojdnvjf df rfstf pns fd knrlf of bn rfgafrgaf ajst`rjquf sur bf k`dof vjijdl & bfssuáo`js A`blfr !rcknd ft 6jbs @vf 6jbss`d, fd g`bbnc`rntj`d nvfg /Yrtfd Ntfdcfrlfr,pucbjfdt bf k`dukfdt Xj(jdlnr j X stfrbfo >? fd 7 IM. Jbs rêojlfr dt fdg`rf cjfd pbus tnrofd 7 :E udf s=dtaásf sur bfs nrkfs sgndojdnvfs tr`uvêfs fd 3rndgf 7M. Jbs tjssárfdt njdsjofs bjfds h`donkfdtnu( fdtrf bn rfgafrgaf vjijdl fd Ngndojdnvjf ft " í b'`ufst #.

7< %@-, 3frojdndo, " %n lrndof jdvnsj`d d`rkndof of EM: E:< #, ;rêêo. of >:=1), jd Sfgufjb ofs trnvnux ajst`rjqufs ,t.JJ, Lfdávf-]nrjs, Or`z, >:<=, p. <>>-<<=

7I 2 8*J N, 5nd, )f Xj(jdlfd jd of Bnlf Bndofd /jW of 5ff , Cr`djdlfd, -+ffdi _jbbjdi, 7 <I 1I0 p.71 !*9/!6, A`blfr, N- 69 *C *, /Yrtfd, Xj(jdlnr j X stfrbfo , 9`ddjfrs, Nt`gia`bk, 7 IM, < p.7M !*9/!6, A`blfr, 6J%NN@6, 6jbs @vf, " !rkfs sgndojdnvfs of b'êp`quf 8jijdl fd 3rndgf #, jd !*9/!6,

A`blfr, LJ6-AJ@, rji ;ojr.4, / foofbndofd r_d Budos udjvfrsjtfts ajst`rj(n kusfuk 4>DEE->DEO0, %udo gKiCbffrup, %udo, 7 : , p. 7:I <0<

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%n prfkjárf k`jtjê ou ^^ ákf sjágbf k`dtrf o`dg udf gfrtnjdf êv`butj`d onds b'êtuof ofb'ajst`jrf vjijdl, knjs quj rfstfrn t`u+`urs jdtrjdsáqufkfdt bjêf nu( o`ddêfs ft ndnb=sfspr`p`sêfs pnr _nbtafr 8`lfb, nvfg bfurs bngudfs ft bfurs bjkjtfs. L'fst bf lrndo ajst`rjfdhrndUnjs /nrg 9b`ga quj snurn rfprfdorf t`utfs gfs d`uvfbbfs `ptjqufs nu sfjd ouk`dukfdt p`ur b'ajst`jrf hrndUnjsf qu'fst sn :`$j t `onbf 7:, pnruf fd 7 I . Jb = pr`p`sf

udf d`uvfbbf ndnb=sf pbus jdtjkfkfdt bjêf nu( k`uvfkfdts lêdêrntj`ddfbs vjijdls, ft qujs'jdtfrr`lf o`rêdnvndt onvndtnlf sur bfs gnusfs ft bfs g`dsêqufdgfs ofs jdvnsj`ds vjijdls.Jb nc`rof nb`rs bfs strntêljfs ofs vjijdls, bfurs ojhhêrfdts êtncbjssfkfdts fd !dlbftfrrf ft fd3rndgf, bfs gnusfs pr`h`dofs of b'nppnrjtj`d " vjijdl #, ft cjfd o'nutrfs qufstj dsg`kpbf(fs quj pnssj`ddfdt bfs oêcnts ofs ajst`rjfds nu+`uro'auj fdg`rf. Jb sfkcbf pnrnjbbfurs trf bf prfkjfr í rfbfvfr quf bfs prfkjfrs ajvfrdnlfs vjijdls d'nppnrnGtrnjfdt qufonds bn " sfg`dof vnluf # of bfurs jdgursj ds, t`ut fd s'jdtfrr`lfndt sur bfs rnjs`ds of gfsajvfrdnlfs, sur bf ga`j( of b'fkpbngfkfdt of bfurs gnkps o'ajvfrdnlf. Jb fssnjf êlnbfkfdto'nppr`gafr t`utf bn rênbjtê of gfs gnkps fd êv`qundt bn prêsfdgf o'udf p`pubntj`d" gjvjbf # ft of b'êtncbjssfkfdt of knrgaês, ft jb d`us hnut s`ubjldfr jgj s`d jkp`rtndtfg`dgbusj`d, pbnUndt b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl g`kkf vfgtfur o'jkpbndtntj`d ofs vjijdls nu sfjd

ou k`dof 3rndg, g`kkf fd 6`rkndojf. Nfs trnvnu( sfr`dt knbafurfusfkfdt pfuf(pb`jtês onds b'jkkêojnt, ft rfstfr`dt ofs a=p`taásfs ft ofs pr`cbêkntjqufs d`dnppbjquêfs nu( êtuofs pnrtjgubjárfs.

7: 9%@LA, /nrg, Bn :`$j t `onbf , $nrjs, !bcjd /jgafb, 7 1 ;rêêo. of 7 I 4, 70 p.

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N-!. "df rfo g`uvfrtf of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl

Jb hnut nttfdorf bfs nddêfs 7 :0 p`ur quf bn rfgafrgaf s'jdtêrfssf í d`uvfnu vêrjtncbfkfdt í b'ajst`jrf vjijdl, ft g'fst of b'!dlbftfrrf quf oêcutfrn ud d`uvfbbf vnluf.

d 7 :< pnrnGt Haf ;lf ` taf vj(jdls , ft fd 7 E< Vjdls ndo vj(jdls , of $ftfr An=fsNnK=fr, `uvrnlfs ` b'nutfur rfd`uvfbbf b'fdsfkcbf ou h`dos of g`ddnjssndgf g`kkf ofsnppr`gafs k kfs of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl fd !dlbftfrrf, fd êtuojndt d`tnkkfdt nu( nspfgtsp`bjtjqufs ft g`kkfrgjnu( of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl. !u ofbí of sn vjsj`d í bn h`js jdtfrdntj`dnbfft pburjojsgjpbjdnjrf of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl, jb rfkft pnr njbbfurs fd gnusf bn vj`bfdgf ft bn cnrcnrjf nttrjcuêf nu( vjijdls, ft sQjdtêrfssf í bfur jkpbndtntj`d onds bfs tfrrjt`jrfs pjbbês,nu( rnjs`ds of rêussjtf `u o'êgafg of bfurs g`b`djsntj`ds ourncbfs. !u( Êtnts ?djs, fd7 EE, Lnrr`bb Cjbbk`r7 n êtuojê bfs jdgursj`ds vjijdls sur bn Nfjdf ft bn %`jrf fdtrf E17 ftEE: nhjd of pr`p`sfr ud d`uvfnu rflnro sur bf d`kcrf o'a`kkfs quf ofvnjfdt g`kptfrbfs rnjos, knjs êlnbfkfdt sur bfs g`dojtj`ds of dnvjlntj`d, of oêpbngfkfdts `u fdg`rf ofdutrjtj`d ofs vjijdls, ofs êbêkfdts í prfdorf fd g`dsjoêrntj`d onds b'êtuof of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl.d 3rndgf, %ugjfd /ussft rfprfdo êlnbfkfdt bfs joêfs bnjssêfs pnr /nrg 9b`ga ft

f(pb`jtêfs pnr $ftfr An=fs NnK=fr p`ur rfoêg`uvrjr b'ajst`jrf vjijdl í b'êgafbbf of b' ur`pf@ggjofdtnbf nvfg Bfs pfupbfs s$ndojdnvfs nu K`+fd lf fd 7 M7, Bfs Mdvnsj`ds, bf sf$`donssnut $`dtrf b' ur`pf $ar tjfddf 4XMMf- Mf sj*$bf0 fd 7 :M, `u sur ofs p`jdts pnrtjgubjfrspnr ofs nrtjgbfs pnr f(fkpbf g`kpjbês nu sfjd of A`roj$n ft d`rknddj$n rf$ufjb oG tuofssur bn :$ndojdnvjf nd$jfddf ft k oj vnbf, bfs f!p ojtj`ds ofs vj(jdls ft bn `dontj`d of bn A`rkndojf 7E fd 7 <. L`kkf /nrg 9b`ga, jb n su prfdorf ud rflnro k`jdsftad`gfdtrjquf, p`ur êtuojfr bfs k`uvfkfdts vjijdls fd tfrkf of " lêdêrntj`d #, sujvndtbfurs pjbbnlfs ft bfurs k`uvfkfdts of kndjárf gar`d`b`ljquf ft nu ofbí ofs bjkjtfsrêlj`dnbfs, ft g`kprfdndt njdsj nu kjfu( bf oêr`ubfkfdt ofs êvádfkfdts. Jb df sf g`dtfdtfpns of d`us pnrbfr o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, knjs fdrjgajt s`d pr`p`s ofs s`urgfs nddf(fs qujp`urrnjfdt êgbnjrfr gfs `ggupntj`ds vjijdls, rêêtuojf bfs s`urgfs k`dnstjqufs bfs êv`qundt,ft rêhbêgajt sur b'`rjljdf ft bn ofstjdntj`d of gfs vjijdls ajvfrdndt fd @ggjofdt. N`d trnvnjbd`us pfrkft êlnbfkfdt of g`dhjrkfr ft of prêgjsfr í d`uvfnu b'fdsfkcbf of d`trfgar`d`b`ljf sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bf k`dof hrndg.

d 9fbljquf, !bcfrt o'Anfdfds rfprfdo êlnbfkfdt gfs kêta`ofs ft gfs `c+fgtjhs, nhjdo'nppr`h`dojr udf ajst`jrf vjijdl b`gnbf, nu sfjd of s`d `uvrnlf Bfs Mdvnsj`ds d`rkndofsfd Cfbljquf nu M *kf sj*$bf bf pa d`k*df ft sn r pfr$ussj`d onds b'ajst`rj`lrnpajf 7 fd7 : . N'jb d`us pr`p`sf udf d`uvfbbf êtuof ofs s`urgfs g`kkf $ftfr An=fs NnK=fr ft%ugjfd /ussft, jb g`dstrujt êlnbfkfdt of d`uvfnu( `c+fgtjhs of rfgafrgaf, prêsfdtêfs ofkndjárf pnssj`ddndtf onds Bfs Mdvnsj`ds A`rkndofs onds b' kpjrf rnd$ nu M *kfsj*$bf & ]`ur udf r d`vntj`d of bn pr`/b kntjquf <0. fd 7 : . N`d npp`rt sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fst p`ur d`us kn+fur & k kf sj bfs o`ddêfs sf prêgjsnjfdt lr)gf nu trnvnjb of $ftfrAn=fs NnK=fr ft of %ugjfd /ussft, g'fst buj quj vn bf prfkjfr êtncbjr udf vêrjtncbf êtuof ofb'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. Jb hnjt bf p`jdt sur bfs sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf fd 9fbljquf, s'jdtfrr`lf sur bfs

7 CJ%%/@*, Lnrr`bb, " _nr `d taf rjvfrs & vjijdl dukcfrs ndo k`cjbjt= `d taf Nfjdf ndo %`jrf, E17 EE: #, jdXM;H# 4>DOO0, v`b. 7 , 9rfp`bs $ucbjsafrs, -urda`ut, 7 EE, p. 770

7E /?NN -, %ugjfd, Bfs jdvnsj`ds, t& 3, Bf sf$`do nssnut $`dtrf b' ur`pf $ar tjfddf 4XMM- Mf sj*$bf0, $nrjs,$rfssfs ?djvfrsjtnjrfs of 3rndgf, 7 :M

7 2QA! 6 6N !bcfrt, Bfs jdvnsj`ds d`rkndofs fd Cfbljquf nu M *kf sj*$bf& Bf pa d`k*df ft sn r pfr$ussj`donds b'ajst`rj`lrnpajf k oj vnbf , %`uvnjd, 9jcbj`taáquf of b'?djvfrsjtê, 7 : , I 7 p.

<0 2'A! 6 6N, !bcfrt, " %fs jdvnsj`ds d`rkndofs onds b'fkpjrf 3rndg nu J^ ákf sjágbf & p`ur udf rêd`vntj`d of bnpr`cbêkntjquf #, jd :fttjkndf oj stuoj` ofb @fdtr` jtnbjnd` oj stuoj subb';bt` Kfoj` , 7 : , p. <<I < E

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rnjs`ds o'ajvfrdfr ft bf ga`j( ofs fkpbngfkfdts o'ajvfrdnlf ga`jsjs pnr bfs vjijdls. Jbrêhbêgajt sur bn oêd`kjdntj`d bntjdf of gfs sjtfs onds bfs tf(tfs, bfs êvfdtufbbfs strugturfsrfkpb`=ês pnr bfs vjijdls ft bfur kjsf fd oêhfdsf. Jb prêsfdtf bf rFbf o'fdtrfpFt of cutjd ftof rêsfrvf nbjkfdtnjrf of gfs gnkps o'ajvfrdnlf, knjs nussj bfur rFbf onds b'utjbjsntj`dd`uvfbbf of bn gnvnbfrjf, ft bn pbngf of gfs gnkps o'ajvfrdnlf onds ud k`uvfkfdt lêdêrnbo'f(pndsj`d vjijdl. N`ubjld`ds bf hnjt quf ganquf êbêkfdt fst jbbustrê of bn kndjárf quj sf

vfut bn pbus f(anustjvf, bn pbus `c+fgtjvf. -`ut gfgj s'jdtálrf onds udf pfrspfgtjvf pbuslêdêrnbf of grjtjquf ofs s`urgfs, nhjd of rêêvnbufr bfs fhhfts qu'`d p`urrnjt ojrf " p`sjtjhs #of bn pêrj`of ofs jdvnsj`ds. L'fst jgj bn grjtjquf bn pbus jkp`rtndtf quj n pu trf hnjtf sur sfstrnvnu( & s'jb g`dsjoárf bfs fhhfts " p`sjtjhs # ofs jdvnsj`ds vjijdls, g'fst pfut trf ofkndjárf f(gfssjvf. Nj bfs trnvnu( o'!bcfrt o'Anfdfds df p`rtfdt quf sur b'njrf o'jdhbufdgfof bn 9fbljquf ngtufbbf, d`us fd hfr`ds ud h`dofkfdt, ud f(fkpbf, ud prjdgjpf p`ur d`trftrnvnjb sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf. !u ofbí ofsg`ddnjssndgfs qu'!bcfrt o'Anfdfds d`us npp`rtf sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fd 9fbljquf, jbpnrnGt ofs pbus pfrtjdfdt quf o'fd rfprfdorf bfs kêta`ofs ft bfs pr`cbêkntjqufs ofrfgafrgaf, p`ur s'jdtêrfssfr í t`ut ajvfrdnlf vjijdl.

Jb hnut nttfdorf b'nrtjgbfHaf Xj(jdls vfrsus taf t`1ds taf d`rtafrd nub $anbbfdlf ndorfsp`dsf <7 of /jgafb *`ugaf, pucbjê fd 7 E , p`ur quf bf paêd`kádf of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdls`jt nc`roê êlnbfkfdt sur bf tfrrjt`jrf hrndUnjs. Jb s'jdsgrjt onds bn g`dtjdujtê o'!bcfrto'Anfdfds, knjs pnrt fd qu tf of d`uvfnu( gnkps o'ajvfrdnlf, cjfd qu'fd npp`rtndt pnrf(fkpbf pfut trf tr`p of g`dhjndgf í bn pa`t`lrnpajf nêrjfddf. /jgafb *`ugaf nppfbbfêlnbfkfdt n udf êtuof nrgaê`b`ljquf s=stêkntjquf ofs p`tfdtjfbs gnkps o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, ft í bn pr`ougtj`d o'ud jdvfdtnjrf ofs h`rtjhjgntj`ds vjijdls fdtrf bn Nfjdf ft b'!n. Jbrêhbêgajt trás pfrtjdfkkfdt nu( g`dsêqufdgfs qu'`dt fu b'nppnrjtj`d ft bf oêvfb`ppfkfdtofs gnkps vjijdls onds bf d`ro of bn Cnubf & jbs sfrnjfdt d`d sfubfkfdt í b'`rjljdf o'udk`uvfkfdt lêdêrnb of h`rtjhjgntj`d ou tfrrjt`jrf pnr bfs lr`upfs b`gnu( ft rêlj`dnu( qujgafrgafdt í bfur hnjrf hngf, knjs êlnbfkfdt k`oábfs p`ur bn g`dstrugtj d of gfsh`rtjhjgntj`ds, of c`js ft of tfrrf. /jgafb *`ugaf prêsfdtf bfs vjijdls g`kkf bfsjdd`vntfurs ft bfs jdvfdtfurs ou rêsfnu h`rtjhjê quf h`rkfr`dt bfs k`ttfs gnstrnbfs ou ^ ákf

sjágbf.

!vfg gf vnstf rfd`uvfbbfkfdt ofs g`ddnjssndgfs, bfs ajst`rjfds oêtjfddfdt ud h`dosof trnvnjb prêgjsê, fdrjgajs ft g`rrjlê ft of d`uvfbbfs kêta`ofs p`ur fdrjgajr b'ajst`jrf vjijdl fd ur`pf @ggjofdtnbf. 3rêoêrjg 2urndo << pr`p`sf nb`rs fd 7 : udf grjtjquf ofsêtuofs nvfg ud p`jdt of vuf sgndojdnvf, ft ofs npp`rts pfrtjdfdts g`dsjoêrndt bfs nspfgtsknrjtjkfs of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl, g`kkf pnr f(fkpbf bfs ojhhjgubtês of bn dnvjlntj`d ftb'jkp`rtndgf of pnssfr b'ajvfr í tfrrf b`rs of bn knuvnjsf snjs`d quj s`dt í b'`rjljdf k kfof b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, su+ft of d`trf êtuof. %f k`dof vjijdl fdtrf nb`rs onds udf pêrj`ofof vublnrjsntj`d í ofstjdntj`d ou lrndo pucbjg, quj s'fd pnssj`ddf ft s'fd fkpnrf, onds udg`dtf(tf of oêvfb`ppfkfdt jkp`rtndt o'ud gfrtnjd jknljdnjrf g`kkud vjijdl, nkpbjhjêpnr f(fkpbf pnr bfs stêrê`t=pfs ft bfs frrfurs of pr`ougtj`ds b'nuoj` vjsufbbfs. /njs g'fstêlnbfkfdt nvfg gfttf " rfoêg`uvfrtf # of b'ajst jrf vjijdl quf v`dt sf oêvfb`ppfronvndtnlf bfs êgandlfs trndsojsgjpbjdnjrfs, pnr f(fkpbf pnr bfs npp`rts of bn bjdlujstjqufft of bn bjttêrnturf í b'ajst`jrf.

<7 *@?LA , /jgafb, " -af 8jijdls vfrsus taf t`Kds `h 6`rtafrd Cnub & ganbbfdlf ndo rfsp`dsf #, jd * 2/!66,Lanrbfs %., Kfojfvnb nr$anf`b`l+, pnpfrs ` taf sfvfdtffdta nddunb $`d frfd$f ` taf $fdtfr ` kfojfvnb fnrb+ndo rfdnjssnd$f stuojfs , 9jdlankt`d, Ntntf udjvfrsjt= `h 6fK B`ri, 7 E , p. 17 M:

<< 2?*!62, 3rêoêrjg, Bfs vj(jdls ft bn kfr , $nrjs, rrndgf, 7 :, 7IM p.

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*êljs 9`=fr fst ud êkjdfdt spêgjnbjstfs ofpujs bfs nddêfs 7 E0 of bn bjttêrnturf, ofb'ajst`jrf of b'nrt ft of bn gjvjbjsntj`d sgndojdnvf. Jb n npp`rtê nb`rs udf pjfrrf jkp`rtndtf íb'ajst`jrf vjijdl pnr b'êtuof ofs snlns sgndojdnvfs, `u fd rê êtuojndt bfs joêfs rfUufs ofb'jknljdnjrf vjijdl, pnr f(fkpbf nu sfjd of s`d `uvrnlf Bfs vj(jdls, =jst`jrf ft@jvjbjsntj`d<I, pnru fd <00<. Jb n êlnbfkfdt pr`p`sê nu( ajst`rjfds of d`uvfbbfspr cbêkntjqufs sur bn gjvjbjsntj`d vjijdl, pnr udf nppr`gaf quj s'fst v`ubu

pburjojsgjpbjdnjrf, knjs jb fst p`ssjcbf of rfbfvfr pnrh`js onds sfs trnvnu( gfrtnjdfs frrfursof kêta`of ajst`rjquf. L`dsjoêrndt d trf su+ft, *êljs 9`=fr n pu rfprfdorf bfsg`dgbusj`ds êv`quêfs g`dgfrdndt b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, ft nvndgfr o'jdtêrfssndtfsjdtfrr`lntj`ds sur b'ngtjvjtê g`kkfrgjnbf qu'`dt pu nv`jr bfs vjijdls b`rs of bfur ajvfrdnlf,qufstj`ddfkfdts rfprjs pnr o'nutrfs ofpujs.

6`us s`uanjtfrj ds êv`qufr jgj 5fnd *fdnuo, êlnbfkfdt spêgjnbjstf of bjttêrnturf ftgjvjbjsntj`d sgndojdnvf, nutfur o'udf taásf sur bfs ;r$ajpfbs d`rr`js& #r$nofs, :aftbndo ft = /rjofs onds bf k`dof vj(jdl <1 s`utfduf í $nrjs fd 7 E1. N'jb s'fst nttngaê, g`kkf *êljs9`=fr, í ofs nppr`gafs of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl sf v`ubndt í bn h`js trás lb`cnbfs knjs nussj trásg`kpbátfs, jb s'fst êlnbfkfdt jdtêrfssê í bn vublnrjsntj`d of b'ajst`jrf vjijdl í ofstjdntj`d

ou lrndo pucbjg. 6êndk`jds, jb fst g`dsjoêrê nu+`uro'auj qu'udf gfrtnjdf grjtjquf o`jts'nppbjqufr í sfs trnvnu( o'ajst`jrf, quj kndqufdt onds gfrtnjds `uvrnlfs of rjlufursgjfdtjhjquf, ft o`dt bn oêknrgaf pfut pnrnGtrf pnrh`js tr`p pfu h`doêf, bfs g`dgbusj`ds tr`pgntêl`rjqufs.2nds s`d `uvrnlf Bfs vj(jdls ft bfs $fbtfs3J , 5fnd *fdnuo d`us prêsfdtf pnr f(fkpbf í bnpnlf 7M pbusjfurs gnkps h`rtjhjês vjijdls of 9rftnldf & bf gnkp of L`Rtqufd í Nnjdt Aêbádo`dt jb df nugudf jdh`rkntj`d suppbêkfdtnjrf, bf gnkp of Nnjdt Nubjng sur bn *ndgf ft bfsjtf of Sujonbft í !bft. Jb df s'f(pbjquf pns onvndtnlf, df gjtf nugudf nutrf êtuof nbbndtonds gf sfds, ft d'êv`quf p`ur sfubfs s`urgfs bn gands`d of lfstf ou *`knd o'!qujd,pr`cncbfkfdt rêojlêf í bn hjd ou ^JJ ákf `u nu oêcut ou ^JJJákf sjágbf pbusjfurs sjágbfs nprásbfs hnjts. Nn cjcbj`lrnpajf êv`quf pnr njbbfurs ud nrtjgbf of %`[g %ndl`uRt sur bf gnkp ofNnjdt Nubjng, sur bfqufb jb o`jt g`dstrujrf gf pnssnlf. 2nds gft nrtjgbf of aujt pnlfs, %`[g%ndl`uRt prêsfdtf ud sjtf fd pnrtjf jkkfrlê ` jb rfbávf g`kkf k`=fd oêhfdsjh gf qujsfrnjt ud rfkpnrt pnrfkfdtê of pjfrrfs ft udf g`urtjdf pr`têlêf pnr udf pnbjssnof ofpjfu( of c`js. ?d rfbfvê s`kknjrf of b'fdsfkcbf o`ddf ojhhjgjbfkfdt udf c`ddfnpprêafdsj`d ou sjtf. %f s`b n êtê oêtrujt fd 7 E< pnr udf ornluf hb`ttndtf tndojs quf ofs`ssfkfdts o'ndjknu( ft ofs nrkfs fd hfr nurnjfdt êtê oêg`uvfrts nu ^J^ ákf sjágbf knjs d`dg`dsfrvês. Jb fst p`ssjcbf quf bf gnkp of Cnronjdf s`jt cjfd bf gnkp vjijdl of Nnjdt Nubjng,êv`quê onds bf *`knd o'!qujd g`kkf gafrgaf í bf prêsfdtfr b'nutfur, knjs rjfd df pr`uvfb'nutafdtjgjtê ofs jdh`rkntj`ds h`urdjfs pnr bf *`knd o'!qujd. !u g`dtrnjrf, gfttf gands`dof lfstf, Zuvrf of b'jknljdnjrf, n êtê rêojlêf pbusjfurs sjágbfs nprás bfs hnjts. N`d nutfursfkcbf trf jdhbufdgê pnr bfs g`dqu tfs ofs $bndtnlfd ts, p`ur pnrbfr ofs g`dqu tfs vjijdls, ft sn g`ddnjssndgf of bn t`p`lrnpajf b`gnbf df pr`uvf fd rjfd bn +ustfssf of sng`ddnjssndgf of b'ajst`jrf b`gnbf, g`kkf bf pr`uvfdt êlnbfkfdt sfs d`kcrfusfs frrfursajst`rjqufs, êv`qundt pnr f(fkpbf bn prêsfdgf of Lanrbfknldf fd 9rftnldf.6j bnt`p`d=kjf, dj bfs g`kpnrnjs`ds ou sjtf nvfg bfs gnkps of -rnds ;êlnbfkfdt h`ujbbê pnr %`[g%ndl`uRt<:4 ft bf gnkp of L`Rtqufd í Nnjdt Aêbád ;o`dt d`us pnrbj`ds pbus tFt,nppnrfkkfdt êtuojê pnr %`[g %ndl`uRt fd 7 E74 df suhhjsfdt pns onvndtnlf í pr`uvfr

<I 9@B *, *êljs, Bfs vj(jdls , $nrjs, $frrjd, <00<, 11< p.<1 * 6!?2, 5fnd, ;r$ajpfbs d`rr`js& #r$nofs, :aftbndo ft = /rjofs onds bf k`dof vj(jdl, CTppjdlfd, 7 EE, 17I

p.<M * 6!?2, 5fnd, Bfs vj(jdls ft bfs $fbtfs, *fddfs, @ufst 3rndgf, 7 <, < p.<: A!/ % NJ/@6 5fnddf Bv`ddf, %!6C@? -, %`jg, 6@?**B 2 6!B *, 3rndU jsf, /@?-@6, 2ndjfb,

" 3`ujbbf o'ud rftrndgafkfdt o'!bnjd 9nrcft rtf ontncbf of I . %f gnkp ofs Anjfs í -rnds ;Jbbf ft 8jbnjdf4 #, jd )`ssjfrs ou @fdtrf o' tuof ft of f$afr$af ;r$a b`ljquf o';bft d\I , Nnjdt /nb`, Lf*!!, 7 , p.1 1

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trnvnjb nddubf bfs tuofs ndt rjfurfs of C`dnk+ ft of b'n// Bf/fu # 4& $bus rêgfkkfdt,fbbfs `dt êlnbfkfdt êtê rfprjsfs pnr %ug 9`urlf`js E0 fd 7 <, quj g`dsjoárf quf bf sjtfêv`quê pnr bfs !ddnbfs of Nnjdt 9frtjd ; ^`ssn jvnboj 4 ft pnr bn gar`djquf of 3`dtfdfbbf; ;ulustuoudns 4 sf rnpp`rtfdt t`us ofu( í b'`ppjouk ou " Lnkp of Lêsnr # í $`rt 8jbbfO.Lnrr`bb Cjbbk`r nc`rof bf su+ft fd <007E7, ft pr`p`sf o'jofdtjhjfr b'Gbf of 5fuh`ssf g`kkf cnsf vjijdl fd EME. Jb jdtr`oujt onds bf oêcnt bf tf(tf ofs Kjrn$ubn :nd$tj frkndjo'!jk`jd, qu'jb nttrjcuf nu rnjos of EME qundo o'nutrfs bf rnpp`rtf nu rnjo of E1M, qujprêgjsf bn gar`d`b`ljf ofs êvádfkfdts ft quf bn tr`upf vjijdl quj nttnquf bf k`dnstárf ofNnjdt 2fdjs ft of Nnjdt Cfrknjd ofs $rês fst k`dtêf í gafvnb. ! pnrtjr of bí, jb êtuojf bfsg`dojtj`ds of v`=nlf í gafvnb o'nb`rs, ft p`stf b'Gbf of 5fuh`ssf g`kkf sfub p`jdt of oêpnrtp`ssjcbf p`ur gf rnjos of EME, b'Gbf o'@jssfb êtndt tr`p êb`jldêf of gfs nccn=fs.

Njk`d L`upbndo n nc`roê bf su+ft of kndjárf pnrtjgubjárfkfdt jdtêrfssndtf onds bn taásfqu'jb n s`utfdu fd 7 E E<, quj p`rtnjt sur bn oêhfdsf kjbjtnjrf qu'n `pp`sê Lanrbfs bf Lanuvfnu( jdgursj`ds vjijdls, knjs jb fst pfu njsê of g`dsubtfr gf tf(tf, f(gbusjvfkfdt ojsp`djcbfí bn cjcbj`taáquf of Lnkcrjolf. Jb sfkcbfrnjt quf 5ndft 6fbs`d njt rfprjs sfs g`dgbusj`dsfd 7 <, nu sfjd of s`d `uvrnlf k`d`lrnpajquf p`rtndt sur Lanrbfs bf Lanuvf EI. Jbs d`uspr`p`sfdt njdsj of g`dsjoêrfr ofu( sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf ojhhêrfdts & b'Gbf of 5fuh`ssf g`kkfprfkjfr sjtf o'ajvfrdnlf fd EM:, pujs b'Gbf o'@jssfb !sgb`an prás of *`ufd fd EME, qujnggufjbbj bfs vjijdls of Njor`g nupnrnvndt í 5fuh`ssf ft quj d'nvnjfdt pns fdg`rf qujttê bnNfjdf. L'fst gf sfg`do sjtf o'ajvfrdnlf quj sfrn nssjêlê pnr Lanrbfs bf Lanuvf fdtrf EME ftE:<.5ngqufs %f /na` E1 nppujfrn fd 3rndgf bfurs a=p`taásfs, fd kfttndt fd nvndt b'jkp`rtndgfofs s`urgfs bntjdfs quj êv`qufdt ofu( d`ks cjfds ojhhêrfdts, t`ut fd s'nppu=ndt sur ud ngtfr`ufddnjs ou oêcut ou ^ jákf sjágbf nppfbndt b'Gbf o'#s$fbbuk b'Gbf o'@jssfb, prás of *`ufd. Jb v`jt bf buvjus Hfbbns onds b'!dofbbf ft kft fd nvndt bfs oêg`uvfrtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufstr`uvêfs onds bn Nfjdf í pr`(jkjtê of b'Gbf o'@jssfb. Lfttf a=p`taásf fst nu+`uro'aujrfg`dduf pnr b'fdsfkcbf ofs gafrgafurs & %nurfdt /nOft Anrt`hh EM bn prêsfdtnjt í d`uvfnufd <00I & bf gnkp of 5fuh`ssf pr`gaf ou g`dhbufdt of b' ptf sur bn Nfjdf fst `ggupê pnrudf tr`upf vjijdl í pnrtjr of EM:, tndojs quf bf gnkp o'#s$fbbus sjtuê sur b'Gbf o'@jssfb fdnk`dt of *`ufd fst buj `ggupê fdtrf EME ft E:7 ft 5`ad An=K``o E: fd 7 M, *êljs 9`=fr E

E %@-, 3frojdndo, " %n lrndof jdvnsj d d`rkndof of EM: E:< #, ; rêêo. of >:=1), jd Sfgufjb ofs trnvnux ajst`rjqufs ,t.JJ, Lfdávf-]nrjs, Or`z, >:<=, p. <>:

%@-, 3frojdndo, " %n lrndof jdvnsj`d d`rkndof of EM: E:< #, ; rêêo. of >:=1), jd Sfgufjb ofs trnvnux ajst`rjqufs ,

t.JJ, Lfdávf-]nrjs, Or`z, >:<=, p. < :E0 9@?*C @JN, %ug, " %f Anut /`=fd >lf onds b'`ufst pnrjsjfd, bfs tf(tfs ft bf tfrrnjd & <. !ut`ur of b'`ppjoukof $`rt 8jbbfO ;Bvfbjdfs4 #, jd Cubbftjd nr$a `b ljquf ou Xf!jd rndUnjs d\3J 4>DD30, Cujr= fd 8f(jd, Lfdtrf of*fgafrgafs !rgaê`b`ljqufs ou 8f(jd 3rndUnjs, 7 <, p. :I :E

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Bfs o`ssjfrs of b'nr$a `b`ljf d\3II , 2j+`d, 3nt`d, `gt`crf <00<, p. <EM /!H - A!*-@33, %nurfdt, " Nur bn trngf ofs vjijdls fd Anutf 6`rkndojf & pr`cbêkntjquf #, jd 3%!/9!*2

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fd <00< ft $jfrrf 9nuoujd EE fd <001 rfprfddfdt êlnbfkfdt gfttf jofdtjhjgntj`d ou gnkpo'#s$fbbus í b'Gbf o'@jssfb, prás of *`ufd, ojhhêrfdt ou gnkp of 5fuh`ssf quj nvnjt êtê`ggupê pbus crjávfkfdt qufbqufs nddêfs pbus tFt.

%f sjtf of Nnjdt 3b`rfdt bf 8jfjb n êtê nc`roê of kndjárf jdtêrfssndtf knjs pfu rjl`urfusfpnr *fdê 2f 2rfuO= ft %`[g /fdfdtfnu E fd 7 : & cjfd qu'nkfdndt ofs qufstj`ds

jdtêrfssndtfs, sur udf s`urgf prfkjárf pfrtjdfdtf, bfs g`dgbusj`ds qu'jbs nkádfdt sfh`dofdt fssfdtjfbbfkfdt sur bf gr`jsfkfdt fdtrf ofs s`urgfs g`kpbêkfdtnjrfs rêojlêfs nu7Eákf sjágbf, sur bn trnojtj d, ft sur udf ndnb=sf pa`t lrnpajquf nêrjfddf snds oêg`uvfrtfpr`cndtf nu s`b.

dhjd, jb fst jkp`rtndt o'êv`qufr nussj jgj qufbqufs sjtfs pr`cbêkntjqufs, quf d`usd'f(pb`jtfr`dt pns nu sfjd of d`trf êtuof. !jdsj, d`us nv`ds g`ddnjssndgf of b'nrtjgbf of3frojdndo %`t, Zd pr tfdou rfpnjrf of pjrntfs d`rkndos nu M *kf sj*$bf 0 , pucbjê fd7 1M, ft quj kft fd bukjárf udf frrfur of g`pjf ft o'jdtfrprêtntj`d of kndusgrjts, o`dt bng`rrfgtj`d djf b'f(jstfdgf ou gnkp vjijdl o' Mdlufr`/s . %'nrtjgbf of $jfrrf *`bndo Cj`t, B'.bf nu! nts of b'#oft 7 pnrut fd 7 7, n bn rjlufur sgjfdtjhjquf o'nttjrfr b'nttfdtj`d ofs

ajst`rjfds sur ud sjtf jdtêrfssndt snds nvndgfr o'êvfdtufbbf g`dgbusj`d d`d h`doêf.

EE 9!?2?J6, $jfrrf, Bfs vj(jdls , $nrjs, $rfssfs ?djvfrsjtnjrfs of 3rndgf, g`bb. " Suf snjs +f ] #, <001, p. MME 2* ?HB, *fdê of, / 6!6- !?, %`[g, Bf $nkp vj(jdl of :njdt-^b`rfdt , Nnjdt 3b`rfdt bf 8jfjb, 7 :0 !68, frojdndo, Vd prêtfdo& rfpnjrf of pjrntfs d`r+ndos n& J f sjá*(f , jd Cubbftjd of b'Ngno kjf ofs Jdsgrj!tj`ds ft

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7 7, p. :M :E

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C- &r sfdtntj`d ofs s`urgfs ojsp`djcbfs

C->. `urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs

%fs ojhhêrfdts trnvnu( quj `dt oê+í êtê rênbjsês sur b'ajst`jrf vjijdl d`us pfrkfttfdto'ngquêrjr o'jkp`rtndtfs jdh`rkntj`ds sf rnttngandt í b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, knjs nussjo'nppr`gafr bfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs prjknjrfs pfrkfttndt o'êgbnjrfr b'ajst`jrf vjijdl.6`us pr`p`sfr`ds jgj udf crávf s=dtaásf of gfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs. Nujtf í gf prfkjfrrfpêrnlf, b'fdsfkcbf of gfs s`urgfs o`jvfdt fdg`rf trf oêp`ujbbêfs, êvfdtufbbfkfdttrnoujtfs, fdhjd êtuojêfs.

%fs nddnbfs g`dstjtufdt bf h`dos kn+fur of b'ajst`rj`lrnpajf lê` p`bjtjquf gnr`bjdljfddf,sur bnqufbbf sf rfp`sf d`trf g`ddnjssndgf ou paêd`kádf vjijdl fd @ggjofdt. Nj fbbfs `dtoêcutêfs í b'êp`quf kêr`vjdljfddf, fbbfs s`dt f(gbusjvfkfdt rêojlêfs fd !ustrnsjf nuEákf sjágbf, s`us b'jdhbufdgf of bn o=dnstjf gnr`bjdljfddf.

$r`oujtfs onds ofs k`dnstárfs ofs cnssjds ou *ajd ft of bn /fusf, fbbfs êtnjfdt " b GYuvrf of$`kpjbntfurs $`dtfkp`rnjds bf pbus s`uvfdt nd`d+kf quj d`tnjfdt /rj*vfkfdt, onds b'`rorf$ar`d`b`ljquf, bfs v*dfkfdts qu'jbs Wulfnjfdt jkp`rtndts& # ;/. *. $. /gCujrf4.

$`ur Cncrjfb /`d`o, " o'n/`ro $`kp`s fs of d`tfs f!tr%kfkfdt /r*vfs ft s*$afs, quj d'`dt o'nutrfk rjtf quf of j!fr bn ontf pr $jsf of qufbqufs njts, fbbfs ofvjfddfdt pfu pfu of v rjtn/bfsajst jrfs, knjs ofs ajst jrfs $rjtfs sjd`d nu W`ur bf W`ur, ou k`jds ndd f pnr ndd f, ft quj `dt bfk rjtf of d`us `urdjr ofs t k`jldnlfs jkk ojnts ft $`dtfkp`rnjds sur bfs v*dfkfdts& #

‗ 5usqu'fd E< , b'`fuvrf ajst`rj lrnpajquf `hhjgjfbbf fst rflr`upêf nu sfjd ofs ;ddnbfs fldj ^rnd$`ruk , pr`cncbfkfdt êgrjtfs pnr ud kfkcrf of bn g`urgnr`bjdljfddf. 6êndk`jds, bf prfkjfr ajvfrdnlf vjijdl nttfstê onds bf k`dof hrndgfst ontê of E1I & fbbfs df sfr`dt o`dg pns f(pb`jtêfs nu sfjd of gfttf êtuof. Nujtf í bnsêpnrntj`d of b'fkpjrf gnr`bjdljfd, bfs nddnbfs of 3ubon fd prfdor`dt fd EI0 bnsuggfssj`d fd Cfrkndjf, bfs nddnbfs of Nnjdt 9frtjd fd 3rndgf, ft bfs nddnbfs of^ndtfd p`ur gf quj sfrn bn hutur %`tanrjdljf.

‗ %fs !ddnbfs of Nnjdt 9frtjd ;`u !ddnbfs 9frtjdjndj4 êv`qufdt bfs êvádfkfdts ofoêr`ubndt sur bf tfrrjt`jrf bn 3rndgf @ggjofdtnbf. bbfs tjfddfdt bfur oêd`kjdntj dof b'nccn=f o'` pr`vjfdt bf pbus ndgjfd kndusgrjt of gfs nddnbfs. Nj bfs prfkjárfsnddêfs sfkcbfdt rêojlêfs pnr ud k`jdf s`us b'jdhbufdgf of %`ujs bf $jfu(, udfsfg`dof pnrtjf of EI0 í E:M rêojlêf pnr b'êv quf $ruofdgf of -r`=fs fst trás ndgrêfí b'jdhbufdgf ofs r`js of 3rndgf @ggjofdtnbf. ?df tr`jsjákf pnrtjf, of E:7 í E <, npr`cncbfkfdt êtê êgrjtf `u ojgtêf pnr Ajdgknr, nrgafv quf of *fjks, quj o`kjdfnb`rs bfs spaárfs p`bjtjqufs.

‗ %fs !ddnbfs of 3ubon ;`u ;ddnbfs ^ubofdsfs4 s`dt fbbfs êgrjtfs pnr tr`js k`jdfssuggfssjhs ou k`dnstárf of 3ubon +usqu'fd EE<, ft nc`rofdt d tnkkfdt bfs

êvádfkfdts knrqundts p`ur b'ajst`jrf of bn 3rndgf `rjfdtnbf. -rás bjêfs nu p`uv`jrr`=nb, d`tnkkfdt of %`ujs bf Cfrkndjquf, fbbfs s`dt fdg`rf g`dtjduêfs +usqu'fd

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EE nvfg qufbquf kndquf of pnrtjnbjtê, pujs +usqu'fd 07 fd 9nvjárf.

‗ dtrf 3rndgjf @ggjofdtnbf ft 3rndgjf `rjfdtnbf, gf s`dt bfs !ddnbfs of ^ndtfd ;`u ;ddnbfs ndtndsfs0 quj d`us npp`rtfdt ud gfrtnjd rêgjt ofs êvêdfkfdt.$r`cncbfkfdt êgrjtfs ofpujs b'nccn=f of %`rsga pnr CfrKnro, ud pr`gaf ou r`j, pujspnr ud g`dtjduntfur jdg`ddu pr`cncbfkfdt pr`gaf of %`ujs bf Cfrkndjquf. bbfs

trnjtfdt udf g`urtf pêrj`of nbbndt of EI< í EM< ft gr`jsfdt `u g`kpbátfdt bfsêvádfkfdts trnjtês onds bfs ;ddnbfs Cfrtjdjndj ft onds bfs ;ddnbfs ^ubofdsfs , knjsdf sfkcbfdt pns npp`rtfr o'êbêkfdts í d`trf êtuof. bbfs tjfddfdt bfur d`k ofb'nccn=f of ^ndtfd, o`dt fbbfs rng`dtfdt bn ofstrugtj`d pnr bfs vjijdls fd E:I.

‗ L'fst ud k`jdf ou k`dnstárf of Nnjdt 8nnst ;!ddnbfs of Nnjdt 8nnst, `u !ddnbfs 8fonstjdj4 quj prfdorn bn sujtf ofs nddnbfs of Nnjdt 9frtjd ft ofs !ddnbfs of^ndtfd, nvfg jkpnrtjnbjtê, t`ut fd êtndt ud têk`jd ojrfgt ofs nttnqufs vjijdls. bbfsprfdor`dt hjd fd 00, nvfg b'nssnssjdnt of b'nrgafv quf 3`ubquf of *fjks ofvfdunccê of Nnjdt 8nnst, ft bn pfrtf of b'jdhbufdgf p`bjtjquf ou k`dnstárf.

‗ %n %`tanrjdljf lnldf pr`lrfssjvfkfdt ud fd+fu p`bjtjquf jkp`rtndt, pujs udf rêfbbfnut`d`kjf. L'fst *êljd`d of $r k, nccê o'ud lrndo k`dnstárf, quj vn s'nttngafr ítrnvnjbbfr í bn rêongtj`d o'udf ajst`jrf sfkj `hhjgjfbbf. Nj gfttf pr`ougtj`d n prjs bfd`k of Lar`djquf of *êljd`d of $r k ;`u Lar`djg`d4 p`ur sn h`rkf udjvfrsfbbf ftoêcutndt nvfg b'Jdgnrdntj`d of 5êsus Larjst, gf s`dt t`u+`urs bn h`rkf ofs nddnbfsquj g`dgfrdfdt bn pêrj`of E : 0:. %'êgrjturf of s`d Zuvrf sf tfrkjdf í -rávfs, ftd`us prêsfdtf ud rflnro rfbntjvfkfdt jkpnrtjnb, knjs nttrjstê pnr bfs qufrfbbfsjdtfstjdfs gnr`bjdljfddfs.

‗ @utrf kndgaf, bn gar`djquf ndlb` sn(`ddf fst udf g`kpjbntj`d o'nddnbfsrnssfkcbêfs nu J^ ákf sjágbf ft rfbntndt bfs êvádfkfdts ofs r`=nukfs ndlb` sn(`ds of11I í 77M1. Nfs nutfurs s`dt nd`d=kfs, knjs trás pr`cncbfkfdt bjês í !bhrfo bfCrndo, r`j ou _fssf(, quj fst í b'jdjtjntjvf of bn oêhfdsf ou r`=nukf hngf nu( vjijdlsft o'udf p`bjtjquf gubturfbbf ndlb` sn(`ddf fdlnlêf. L'fst bn pbus jkp`rtndtf s`urgfof g`ddnjssndgf ou prfkjfr /`=fd >lf ndlb` sn(`d, ft bn prfkjárf ajst`jrf o'udfdntj`d rêojlêf fd @ggjofdt fd bndluf vfrdngubnjrf, fd vjfjb ndlbnjs.

Lfs gjdq nddnbfs s`dt o`dg bfs h`dofkfdts of d trf g`ddnjssndgf of b'êp`qufgnr`bjdljfddf, ft of bf prêsfdgf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf. Lf sfr`dt bfss`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs prjdgjpnbfs of gfttf êtuof.

2f kndjárf pbus p`dgtufbbf, jb sfrn êlnbfkfdt jkp`rtndt of s'`uvrjr í qufbqufs nutrfsnddnbfs, of pr`ougtj`d rêlj`dnbf, quj `dt êlnbfkfdt gfrtnjdfs o`ddêfs í d`us `hhrjr. !jdsj,bfs !ddnbfs of /ftO ;`u ;ddnbfs Kfttfdsfs 4 s`dt udf g`kpjbntj`d k`ofrdf jssufs o'udkndusgrjt oêg`uvfrt í b'nccn=f Nnjdt !rd`uo of /ftO. Lf kndusgrjt n êtê g`dstrujt fdrnssfkcbndt ofs jdh rkntj`ds jssufs ofs !ddnbfs of Nnjdt 9frtjd pnr f(fkpbf, knjs nussjo'udf s`urgf `rjljdnbf g`uvrndt bn pêrj`of : E EI0, bfs ;ddnbfs Kfttfdsfs ]rj`rfs , o`dtud kndusgrjt n êtê oêg`uvfrt onds bn cjcbj`taáquf ou ganpjtrf of bn gntaêornbf of 2urank.%fs !ddnbfs of 3`dtfdfbbf ;!ddnbfs 3`dtndfbbfdsfs4 êlnbfkfdt nppfbbêfs Lar`djquf ofNnjdt _ndorjbbf ;@ar`dj$`d snd$tj 8ndorflfsjbj 4 `dt êtê êgrjtf pnr ud k`jdf of b'nccn=fof Nnjdt _ndorjbbf, k`dnstárf ou cnssjd of bn Nfjdf, ft d`us npp`rtfdt ofs jdh`rkntj`dso'ud jdtêr t rêlj`dnb sur bn pêrj`of nbbndt of E10 í EM:.

%fs !ddnbfs of *fo`d fdhjd, d`us s`dt pnrvfdufs lr)gf í udf g`pjf ou kndusgrjt rênbjsêfnu ^8ákf sjágbf nu /`dt Nnjdt /jgafb. %n Lar`djquf of Nnjdt 9rjfug fdhjd, rêojlêf nu

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^JJákf sjágbf ft jdtêlrêf í bn Lar`djquf of 6ndtfs, fst í prfdorf nvfg udf rêfbbf grjtjquf,knjs pfut êv`qufr bf s`uvfdjr of gfrtnjds êvádfkfdts o'nb`rs.dhjd, d`us p`uv`ds pnrbfr o'ud tf(tf qufbquf pfu ojhhêrfdt ofs nddnbfs k`dnstjqufs & bnXjf o';b rfo rêojlêf pnr !ssfr. Lfttf cj`lrnpajf n êtê êgrjtf fd E I, qufbqufs nddêfs nvndtbn k`rt ou r`j, pnr ud k`jdf lnbb`js ofvfdu êruojt í bn g`ur pujs êv quf of Nafrc`rdf. bbfd`us npp`rtf o'jkp`rtndtfs jdh`rkntj`ds sur bn prêsfdgf vjijdl onds bf k`dof ndlb`

sn(`d fdtrf bfs nddêfs EM0 ft E 0, cjfd qu'nvfg gfrtnjdfs frrfurs lê`lrnpajqufs ftgar`d`b`ljqufs, bjêf í bn rêongtj`d ou tf(tf d`d pns nu k`kfdt ofs êvádfkfdts, knjsqufbqufs ojOnjdfs o'nddêfs pbus tnro.

Lfrtnjdfs nutrfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs, anlj`lrnpajqufs pnr f(fkpbf, pfuvfdtd`us npp`rtfr ofs jdh`rkntj`ds sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. !jdsj, bn 8jf of Nnjdt 9fd`Gt,rêojlêf pnr pbusjfurs k`jdfs of 3bfur=, rng`dtf bfs kjrngbfs of Nnjdt 9fd`Gt ft bfspêrêlrjdntj`ds of gfs rfbjqufs, hjoábfs nu t=pf anlj`lrnpajquf. 6êndk`jds b'ud of gfsk`jdfs, orfvnb `u rorfvnbo, pfut trf k`rt fd EMI, rng`dtf bn ofstrugtj`d fd E1I of bfur

k`dnstárf of Nnjdt 3b`rfdt bf 8jfjb pnr bfs vjijdls, êvêdfkfdt qu'jb n pr`cncbfkfdt vu ofsfs =fu(. N`d têk`jldnlf fst ofs pbus jdtêrfssndts. 2nds bf k`dnstárf of 6`jrk`utjfr, bfk`jdf rkfdtnjrf fst buj b'nutfur o'ud `uvrnlf sur bn 8jf ft bfs /jrngbfs of Nnjdt $ajbjcfrt.Jb p`ursujt bf rêgjt fd rfbntndt bn hujtf of sn g`kkudnutê, ofvndt bf pêrjb vjijdl quj kfdngfs`d k`dnstárf.

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C-!. `urgfs nrga `b`ljqufs

Nj bfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs d`us npp`rtfdt ofs jdh`rkntj`ds prjk`rojnbfs surb'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf, d`us nv`ds bn gandgf of p`uv`jr

êlnbfkfdt êtuojfr o'jkp`rtndtfs oêg`uvfrtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs, quj npp`rtfdt í d`trf su+ft bntrngf pa=sjquf of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. %'êtuof of gfs trngfs pfrkft o'udf pnrt of g`dhjrkfrft prêgjsfr d`s g`ddnjssndgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs, knjs êlnbfkfdt o'nutrf pnrt o'nbbfr pbus b`jd,fd qu tf of d`uvfbbfs g`ddnjssndgfs. %'êtuof nrgaê`b`ljquf d`us bjvrf ofs jdh`rkntj`dsjssufs ojrfgtfkfdt of bn prêsfdgf vjijdl, ft d`d hjbtrêfs pnr bf rflnro, b'jdtêr t ft bng`kprêafdsj`d o'ud êruojt @ggjofdtnb. Nj fbbfs s`dt í npprêafdofr nvfg nutndt of kjdutjfft of grjtjquf quf bfs s`urgfs kndusgrjtfs, fbbfs pfuvfdt d`us trndsp`rtfr nu gZur k kfofs k`kfdts o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl.

Jb = n o'nc`ro ofs êtuofs nrgaê`b`ljqufs k`d`lrnpajqufs, g`rrfsp`dondt í bnpr`ougtj`d sgjfdtjhjquf suggêondt í ud gandtjfr of h`ujbbf. Lfs rnpp`rts sf s`dt kubtjpbjêsofpujs qufbquf oêgfddjfs, knjs s`dt t`us trás ojhhêrfdts bfs uds ofs nutrfs, sfb`d bfp`tfdtjfb of ganquf sjtf ft b'fdvfrlurf of ganquf gandtjfr.

‗ %f gandtjfr nrgaê`b`ljquf bf pbus ndgjfd quj pfut trf bjê í b'êtuof of b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl fst gfbuj of bn sêpubturf í cntfnu vjijdl of b'Gbf of Cr`j(, fd 9rftnldf.3`ujbbêfs fd 7 0: pnr $nub 2u Lantfbjfr ft %`ujs %f $`dt`js< , fbbf prêsfdtf b'êtuofo'udf sêpubturf vjijdl of lrndo nppnrnt of bn hjd ou J ákf sjágbf `u ou oêcut ou ákf

sjágbf, f(gfptj`ddfbbf onds bfs k`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf. d fhhft, gfttf sêpubturfprêsfdtf bfs vfstjlfs o'ud cntfnu vjijdl ;o`dt têk`jldfdt pbusjfurs gfdtnjdfs ofrjvfts<7 ukc`s of c`ugbjfr4, nu sfjd ouqufb `dt êtê tr`uvê bfs rfstfs o'ud a`kkfo')lf kur nvfg í sfs gFtês ud +fudf a`kkf `u o'udf +fudf hfkkf. !ut`ur o'fu(, bnh`ujbbf n êlnbfkfdt rêvêbêf í bn h`js ofs `ssfkfdts of gajfd ft o'`jsfnu(, udf cnluffd `r ft ofs êbêkfdts of +fu(, knjs nussj ud ganuor`d, ofs nrkfs t=pjqufkfdt vjijdls ft of d`kcrfu( `utjbs, gfrtnjds of h`rlf `u of kfdujsfrjf. %fs nrgaê`b`lufs`dt fu bn gandgf of p`uv`jr g`bbnc`rfr sur bf su+ft nvfg of lrndos spêgjnbjstfssgndojdnvfs quj g`dtrjcufdt í o`ddfr t`utf sn grêojcjbjtê í bn h`ujbbf onds udprfkjfr tfkps, nvndt quf gfs ndnb=sfs df s`jfdt í d`uvfnu g`dhjrkêfs pnr bf ond`jsC. Custnhs`dI fd 7 0E, pujs rê êtuojês ft prêgjsêfs pnr /jganfb / bbfr _jbbf fd7 E 1 ft pnr %jbjndf -nrr`u fd <00<M. %'ajst`rjfd d`rvêljfd *`nbo /`rgifd : fd7 , pujs bf kêtê`r`b`luf jsbndonjs $ bb 9frlta rss`d fd <00< sf s`dt fu(

< 2? LA!- %J *, $nub, % $@6-@JN, %`ujs, " %n sêpubturf sgndojdnvf í cnrquf of b'Gbf of Cr`j( #, jd Cubbftjdof bn s`$j t nr$a `b`ljquf ou ^jdjst*rf , t.IM, Sujkpfr, 7 0E, p. I E

I C?N-!3N@6 C., " Nur bfs trngfs ofs vjijdls. 2êg`uvfrtf fd 3rndgf o'udf sêpubturf of b')lf ofs vjijdls, í d'fdpns o`utfr bn sêpubturf o'ud vjijdl d`rvêljfd #, jd Cubbftjd of bn s`$j t nr$a `b`ljquf ou ^jdjst*rf , t.IM,Sujkpfr, 7 0E, p.< 0 <E

1 /?%% * _J%% , /jganfb v`d, " 2ns Ngajhhslrnc v`d ofs [bf of Cr`j( ;9rftnldf4 #, jd _!LAA@%-H, W., )ns ;r$a `b`ljs$af ^udokntfrjnb MMM ofr ;uslrn/udl =njtan/u , 6fukudstfr, 7 E, p. 1E E1

M -!**@?, %jbjndf, " %n sêpubturf í cntfnu vjijdl of b'Jbf of Cr`j( ;/ rcjand4 #, jd %fs o ssjfrs of b'!rgaê`b`ljfd < , <00<, p. < .

: /@*LW 6, *`nbo, " 8fjfd k`t d`ro & 8jijdltjofds ojstndsftncfbb bndls ofd d`rsif i=st hrn svfdsiflrfdsfd tjbAvjtfanvft #, jd :WR nrtsajst`rjs( _r/`( 4>DII0, 9frlfd, Ajbsfd, 7 E, p. E<;trno. & " %n r`utf vfrs bf d`ro & bn tncbf ofs ojstndgfs 8jijdl bf b`dl of bn gFtf d`rvêljfddf of bn hr`dtjárfsuêo`jsf í bn kfr 9bndgaf #, jd ;ddunjrf ajst`rjquf knrjtjkf of >DII0

9 *C-A *NN@6, $ bb, ?d `c+ft of b'Gbf of Cr j( , jd Bfs vj(jdls fd ^rnd$f& Bfs o`ssjfrs of b'nr$a `b ljf

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jdtêrfssês í êtuojfr bf k=stêrjfu( `c+ft ofdtê oêg`uvfrt nu sfjd of bn sêpubturf,qu'jbs prêsfdtfdt g`kkf ud êvfdtufb jdstrukfdt of dnvjlntj`d. Nj b'ajvfrdnlf d'fstpns nvêrê, jb fst trás pr`cncbf g`kkf d`us bf vfrr`ds pbus b`jd, g`dsjoêrndtb'jkp`rtndgf ft bn qunbjtê of b'jdaukntj`d.

?df vjdltnjdf o'nddêfs nprás bn oêg`uvfrtf of b'Gbf of Cr`j(, g'fst d`d b`jd of bí, í6ndtfs, qu'udf d`uvfbbf êtuof nrgaê`b`ljquf fst jdjtjêf sur ud sjtf bjê í b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. d 7 <E, í 6ndtfs, Cf`rlfs 2urvjbbf êtuojf ud fdsfkcbf o'êpêfs" d`rkndofs # rftr`uvêfs b`rs of ornlnlfs onds bf bjt of bn %`jrf, qu'jb nttrjcuf í" b'Gbf of 9jágf #E , gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl nttfstê onds bfs tf(tfs g`kkf êtndtsjtuê í pr`(jkjtê jkkêojntf of 6ndtfs. N`d trnvnjb n êtê rênbjsê of kndjárf íd`uvfnu jdtêrfssndtf & bfs tf(tfs êv`qufdt b'Gbf of " Cftjn # `u " Cf$jn# ft jb f(jstffdg`rf nu+`uro'auj ud bjfu í 6ndtfs nppfbê " Gbf of 9jágf #. L'fst pnr njbbfurs sur bfs c`ros of gfttf Gbf quf bfs ornlufs suggfssjvfs of bn %`jrf nu ^Jákf sjágbf `dt rêvêbêof d`kcrfusfs nrkfs vjijdls. N'jb prêgjsf nvfg rjlufur sgjfdtjhjquf quf gfrtnjdsnutfurs b`gnbjsfdt bf gnkp vjijdl sur bn %`jrf cjfd fd nk`dt of 6ndtfs, snds

nrlukfdt pr`cndt, jb s`us fstjkf pnr g`dtrf bf têk`jldnlf o'!orfvnb of 3bfur=,g`dtfkp`rnjd ft pr`cncbf têk`jd `gubnjrf ofs êvádfkfdts, quj êv`quf ud gnkp vjijdl í Nnjdt 3b`rfdt bf 8jfjb. Nj bn prêsfdgf o'ud gnkp vjijdl sur b'Gbf of 9jágfsfkcbf trás pr`cncbf, jb df d`us hnut pns f(gburf bn prêsfdgf o'ud nutrf gnkp vjijdlsjtuê í Nnjdt 3b`rfdt bf 8jfjb. ?df êtuof rêgfdtf of gf k`cjbjfr pnr /=bádf6nvftnt , fd <001, prêsfdtf fssfdtjfbbfkfdt bf g`dtf(tf ajst`rjquf ofs jdvnsj`ds vjijdls pujs b'ajst`jrf ofs g`bbfgtj`ds ou kusêf 2`crêf of 6ndtfs ;` s`dtg`dsfrvêfs bfs nrkfs vjijdls of b'Gbf of 9jágf4 nvndt of pr`p`sfr ud fssnj oft=p`b`ljf k`rpa` gar`d`b`ljquf of gfs nrkfs vjijdls.

‗ %fs oêg`uvfrtfs nrgaê`b ljqufs sfkcbfdt k jds o`gukfdtêfs sur bf s`b crjtnddjquf, knjs `dt êtê dêndk`jds pbus knrqundtfs. /nrtjd 9joobf ft 9jrtafW+\bc=f 9joobf `dt g`doujt bn h`ujbbf ou gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl of *fpt`d of 7 1í 7 I, ft `dt bjvrê bn s=dtaásf of bfurs oêg`uvfrtfs fd <007 700. %fs nrgaê`b`lufs `dtrfbfvê ud fdsfkcbf of tfrrnssfkfdts h`rkndt udf p`ssjcbf h`rtjhjgntj`d fd h`rkf of" 2 #, `uvfrtf sur b'ndgjfd bjt of bn rjvjárf -rfdt, pbusjfurs sêpubturfs of t=pfsgndojdnvf í b'jdtêrjfur ft í b'f(têrjfur of gft fdsfkcbf, ft ud tukubus ontê pnrndnb=sf dukjskntjquf of E I E 1 ncrjtndt bfs `s oêsnrtjgubês o'nu k`jds <:1jdojvjous. !vndt b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl of E I E 1, bf sjtf of *fpt`d prêsfdtnjt udfêlbjsf nvfg cnptjstárf ft n nggufjbbj gf quj n pr`cncbfkfdt êtê b'ud ofs knus`bêfs ofsr`js of /frgjf, í b'`ufst of b'êlbjsf. %n lrndof nrkêf vjijdl fst nrrjvêf fd E I sur udsjtf nu( d`kcrfusfs g`dstrugtj`ds, nppnrtfdndt í udf g`kkudnutê k`dnstjqufrfbntjvfkfdt rjgaf, knjs sur ud sjtf njdsj êlnbfkfdt s=kc`bjquf p`ur bn /frgjf. 2fstfrrnssfkfdts `dt êtê fdtrfprjs p`ur h`rkfr udf bfvêf of tfrrf nss`gjêf í ud h`ssê,ft b'ndgjfddf êlbjsf n êtê utjbjsêf g`kkf pnrtjf g`dstjtundtf of gfttf h`rtjhjgntj`d

d\3II , 2j+`d, 3nt`d, `gt`crf <00<, p. 7E 2?*8J%% , Cf rlfs, " %fs êpêfs d`rkndofs of b'Jbf of 9jágf #, jd Cubbftjd o bn :`$j t ;r$a `b`ljquf ft

=jst`rjquf of Andtfs ft of B`jrf Md rjfurf , t.:E, 6ndtfs, 7 <E, p. 7<7 71:6!8 -!-, /=bádf, Bfs nrkfs vj(jdls of bn p rj`of ofs jdvnsj`ds vj(jdls ou Kus f ) pnrtfkfdtnb ) /r f of Andtfs, OFF->FJF, kêk`jrf p`ur udf knGtrjsf o'nrgaê`b`ljf, *fddfs, ?djvfrsjtê of Anutf 9rftnldf *fddfs,<001, I v`b.

700 %JOO! 5nrtjd, 9#2!%; -%JOO! , %jrt$f, "fpt d ndo 4t$f 0rfnt $fnt$fd nr+MN, 1< -1<7 , jd L" 5-G 5]% !!, #n+fs, !!, "j*$nro, # CG , #&ojt$, ] "C6/C, Onvjo /., Xj"jdl ndo taf #ndfbn$ % sfbfgt !n!frs hr`ktaf !r`gffojdls `h taf tajrtffdta vj"jdl g`dlrfss , &`ttajdlank ndo `r"( )*+,- Nulust *../ , 6' `ro, 6' `F ``Hs, ==>,

p. 7 -:?

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prjknjrf, pr`cncbfkfdt g`kkf p`rtf o'fdtrêf ou gnkp. d ofa`rs of bn oêg`uvfrtfknb o`gukfdtêf o'udf nrkf vjijdl sur bf sjtf nu ^J^ ákf sjágbf, g'fst bn kjsf nu +`urof tr`js sêpubturfs of t=pf sgndojdnvf ;jdaukntj d nvfg êpêfs sgndojdnvfs,kêonjbb`d fd h`rkf of knrtfnu of -a`r...4, `rlndjsêfs nut`ur of b'êlbjsf, qujprêgjsfdt b'nttrjcutj`d vjijdl of b'fdsfkcbf. %'êtuof of gfs sêpubturfs rfbávfêlnbfkfdt qu'nu k`jds b'ud of gfs lufrrjfrs vjijdls n êtê tuê vj`bfkkfdt. %f

tukubus, sjtuê fd ofa`rs ofs h`rtjhjgntj`ds, rêutjbjsf bf knus`bêf ndlb` sn(`d r`=nbprêgêofkkfdt gjtê. Jb n êtê h`ujbbê of kndjárf supfrhjgjfbbf ft knbnor`jtf ofpujs snoêg`uvfrtf ndgjfddf, bfs " ndtjqunjrfs # o'nb`rs n=ndt g`kpbátfkfdt oêrndlê bfsstrugturfs ft oêsnrtjgubê bfs rfstfs auknjds. %fs oêg`uvfrtfs dukjskntjqufsbnjssfdt sup`sfr udf jdaukntj`d lêdêrnbf fd E 1 E 1, b`rs ou pnssnlf of bn tr`upf vjijdl. %'ndnb=sf ofs `ssfkfdts prêsfdtf b'jdaukntj`d o'udf p`pubntj`d o'í pfuprás <00 a`kkfs ft of M0 hfkkfs, qunsj f(gbusjvfkfdt noubtf. %fs a`kkfs ;ftd`d bfs hfkkfs4 of gfttf p`pubntj`d sfkcbfdt nv`jr êtê pbus lrndos quf gfu( ofsnutrfs gjkftjárfs ou sjtf ft pfuvfdt trf jofdtjhjês g`kkf sgndojdnvfs. ?dfjdaukntj`d fd snrg`panlf sf oêlnlf of b'fdsfkcbf, ft pfut trf gfbbf o'ud gafh vjijdl of anutf nut`rjtê. /nrtjd 9joobf ft 9jrtaf W+\bc=f 9joobf pr`p`sfdt o'= v`jr

bn sêpubturf of Jvnr 9fjdbnusj, hjbs of *nldnr %`tacr`i ft Mákf gafh of b'n lrndofnrkêf vjijdl, quj nurnjt dnvjluê vfrs 2ucbjd fd E 7 ft sfrnjt k`rt fd E I. %fsnrgaê`b`lufs nvndgfdt bf hnjt quf bfs nddnbfs df prêgjsfdt dubbfkfdt qu'jb s`jt k`rtí 2ucbjd, gf quf bn trnojtj`d n rfprjs, ft quf bn snln of *nldnr %`tacr``i sjtufb'jdaukntj`d of Jvnr fd !dlbftfrrf.

‗ Sufbqufs nddêfs pbus tnro, bf gnkp of -`risf= fst nppr`gaê s`us b'ndlbf of bndukjskntjf pnr /nri 9bngicurd fd 7 ;pucbjgntj`d fd <00< pujs rêêojtj`d nvfgudf kjsf í +`ur jdêojtf fd <0774707, nvndt o' trf f(nkjdfr s`us pr`spfgtj`dnrgaê`b`ljquf pnr 2nKd Anobf= ft 5ubjnd 2. *jganros fd <07I70<.2nds ud prfkjfr tfkps, /nri 9bngicurd n njdsj rnssfkcbê pntjfkkfdt bfsoêg`uvfrtfs of pbus o'ud kjbbjfrs of pjágfs of k`ddnjfs rênbjsêfs pnr pbusjfurspnrtjgubjfrs pr spfgtndt í b'njof of oêtfgtfurs of kêtnu(, fd n=ndt pfu ofg`ddnjssndgfs sur bn b`gnbjsntj`d ft bf g`dtf(tf ofs oêg`uvfrtfs. Jb fd rfss`rt udfo`kjdndtf jkp`rtndtf of pfddjfs o'nrlfdt of t=pf budfttfs of bn pêrj`of E:< E M,of st+$ns of 6`rtaukcrjf pfu utjbjsês fd /frgjf, knjs nussj of ojranks jsbnkjqufsqufbquf pfu pbus ndgjfds, knjs gf quj fst g`aêrfdt nvfg gfttf k kf pêrj`of sj b'`dg`dsjoárf bf tfkps qu'jbs `dt pu kfttrf p`ur nrrjvfr ou pr`gaf @rjfdt. %'udf ofsfdsfkcbfs of k`ddnjfs bfs pbus `rjljdnbfs rftr`uvêf í -`risf= fst g`dstjtuêo'jkjtntj`ds of s`bjoj hrndgqufs. Jb fst í s`ubjldfr quf bn oêg`uvfrtf ofsojranks ,p`ur bn pbupnrt crjsês nhjd o'fd hnjrf udf k`ddnjf o'êgandlf pbus nggfssjcbf,rfprêsfdtf bn pbus jkp`rtndtf g`dgfdtrntj`d of k`ddnjf jsbnkjquf oêg`uvfrtf í gf +`ur fd !dlbftfrrf, ft pfut trf g`kpnrêf nvfg bn oêg`uvfrtf of ojranks onds bfsgfdtrfs g`kkfrgjnu( sgndojdnvfs of 9jrin fd Nuáof ft of Wnupndl fd 6`rválf.2fs bjdl`ts o'`r ft o'nrlfdt, njdsj quf ofs p`jos of cnbndgf of t=pf sgndojdnvf ft ofspjágfs of +fu, `dt êlnbfkfdt êtê oêg`uvfrts í -`risf=. %'fdsfkcbf of gfsoêg`uvfrtfs, rênbjsêfs sur ud fdsfkcbf of sj( gankps no+ngfdts í bn rjvjárf -rfdt,bnjssfdt í pfdsfr qu'fbbfs s`dt bfs trngfs ou gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl quj h t êtncbj í-`risf= fd E <. %'udf ofs pnrtjgubnrjtês ou sjtf fst êlnbfkfdt sn trás jkp`rtndtfsupfrhjgjf, quj rêvábf udf njrf o'`ggupntj`d, bjêf í udf nrkêf knjs nussj í t`utf bnp`pubntj`d quj b'ngg`kpnldf, cjfd pbus qu''ud sjkpbf gnkp h`rtjhjê ft bjkjtê.

707 9%!LW9?*6, /nri, " -af vjijdl Kjdtfr gnkp nt t`risf=, E < E I #, jd 9%!LW9?*6, /nri, Xj(jdl $`jdnlfndo $urrfd$+ jd taf /rjtjsa jsbfs , %`do`d, Npjdi ft N`d, <077, p. <<7 <1:

70< A!2% B, 2nvjo, *JLA!*2N, 5ubjnd 2., " 8jijdl -`risf=, Jdsjof taf Crfnt !rk='s Kjdtfr gnkp #, jd @urrfdtnr$anfb`l+, Mssuf 3O>,%`dorfs, n` t <07I, p. 7< 7

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2nvjo Anobf= ft 5ubjnd 2. *jganros s`dt pnrtjs sur bfs trngfs of gfs oêg`uvfrtfs, nhjdof dnturf ft bn t`p`lrnpajf ou sjtf. %fs prfkjárfs pr`spfgtj`ds lê`pa=sjqufs `dtrêvêbê ud sjtf h`rkê pnr ud tfrrnjd surêbfvê, h`rkndt udf s`rtf o'Gbf fdtrf bn rjvjárf-rfdt ft of pr`cncbfs knrêgnlfs. !ugud tfrrnssfkfdt d'n êtê rfbfvê, knjs ud c)tjkfdt qunorndlubnjrf n êtê oêg`uvfrt pnr fbfgtr`knldêtjskf, ft g`rrfsp`dopr`cncbfkfdt í udf `ggupntj`d ndlb` r`knjdf prênbncbf sj b'`d fd g`dsjoárf bfs

tfss`ds of gêrnkjqufs rfbfvês nu k kf fkpbngfkfdt. Lfs nrgaê`b`lufs rfbávfdt íd`uvfnu b'jdtêr t t`ut pnrtjgubjfr of gf sjtf & sn surhngf, quj têk`jldf pr`cncbfkfdtof t`utf bfs ngtjvjtês nrtjsndnbfs, g`kkfrgjnbfs ft o`kfstjqufs quj lrnvjtnjfdtnut`ur o'udf tr`upf vjijdl fd ajvfrdnlf. Jbs s`uanjtfdt nu+`uro'auj p`uv`jrnppr`h`dojr b'êtuof ou sjtf pnr ofs h`ujbbfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs.

‗ 6`us nv`ds êlnbfkfdt g`ddnjssndgf ofs trnvnu( of %`[g %ndl`uft sur bfs êvfdtufbsgnkps ou cnstj`d N`bjo`r í Nnjdt /nb` ft of Cnronjdf í Nnjdt Nubjng & Bfs `ujbbfsnr$a `b`ljqufs ou /nstj`d of :`bjo`r :njdt-Knb` 70I, 7 EI, ft Zd rftrnd$afkfdtd`rkndo « jdsubnjrf ¹ nronjdf :njdt-:ubjn$ 701, 7 7. 6êndk`jds, g`kkf d`usb'êv`quj`ds ud pfu pbus tFt b`rs of gfttf êtuof, d`us d'fd pnrtnlf`ds pns bfsg`dgbusj`ds, g`dsjoêrndt bfs joêfs jdtêrfssndtfs, knjs bfs kêta`ofs tr`p pfurjl`urfusfs ft bfs jdtfrprêtntj`ds tr`p pfu h`doêfs. 6`us df rfvjfdor`ds pnr surd`trf oêk`dstrntj`d ou kndquf of prfuvfs g`dgbundtfs pfrkfttndt o'nttrjcufr udfjofdtjtê vjijdl nu gnkp of Nnjdt Nubjng. 2f k kf, bn h`ujbbf ou cnstj`d of N`bjo`r íNnjdt /nb` rfbávf ofs ndnb=sfs jdtêrfssndtfs, knjs df kft fd bukjárf rjfd of pbusqu'udf rfkjsf fd êtnt ofs h`rtjhjgntj`ds ft b'jdstnbbntj`d o'ud ancjtnt sur bf sjtf nu^ ákf sjágbf, snds nugudf trngf sgndojdnvf. 8`jr onds bf cnstj`d N`bjo`r bn t`ur vjijdlo'!qujd `u o'@rfjlbf ou *`knd o'!qujd fst pfut trf +ustf, knjs í d`uvfnu, d`us dfg`ddnjss`ds pns bn vnbfur ajst`rjquf ou *`knd o'!qujd. ?df bêlfdof n=ndt pr`p`ssur b'jofdtjtê vjijdl ou sjtf ft sur bfs `rjljdfs ou párf of 9frtrndo 2ulufsgbjd,rnpp`rtêf pnr 3r jssnro nu ^J8 ákf sjágbf, d'npp`rtf quf pfu of p jos íb'nrlukfdtntj`d. $nr rjlufur sgjfdtjhjquf, d`us df d`us nut`rjsfr`ds pns bf o`utf, ftd'jdtálrfr`dt pns gfs ojhhêrfdts sjtfs í d`trf êtuof sur b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl onds bfsk`dofs hrndg ft crjtnddjquf.

‗ %f sjtf of -rnds n êtê h`ujbbê ft êtuojê pnr 5fnddf Bv`ddf Ankfb Njk`d, %`[g%ndl`uRt ft bfur êqujpf70M, knjs prêsfdtf ofs g`dgbusj`ds pfu g`dvnjdgndtfs. %fur`pêrntj`d g`dsjstf fssfdtjfbbfkfdt fd udf pr`spfgtj`d ou sjtf g`dstjtuê ou gnkp ou 8jfu( /'dn ft ou gnkp ofs Anjfs, d`tnkkfdt sur bn cnsf o'ud rfbfvê êbfgtr`knldêtjquf. /njs sj bf sjtf fst ofs pbus jdtêrfssndts, sfubs qufbqufs strugturfs ofrftrndgafkfdt ft tfss`ds of gêrnkjquf `dt êtê oêg`uvfrtfs. Nnds k`cjbjfr jssu pnrf(fkpbf of b'nrkfkfdt `u of bn vjf qu`tjojfddf o'a`kkfs nrkês, b'êtuof of pFts fdgêrnkjquf í bávrf fd cndofnu rfstf bf pbus " sêrjfu( nrlukfdt p`ur v`jr onds gfttfh`rtf pr`p`rtj`d eof gêrnkjqufs í bávrf fd cndofnu b'`ggupntj`d ou gnkp ofsAnjfs pnr udf tr`upf fd oêpbngfkfdt # ;pnlf 04. %fs nrgaê`b`lufs = v`jfdt o`dgud gnkp vjijdl nu 8jfu( /'dn, `ggupê qufbqufs tfkps, ft bf gnkp ou crft`d !bnjd9nrcft`rtf vfdu bfs ganssfr nu( Anjfs, `ggupê of kndjárf pbus êpaêkárf bf tfkpsou sjálf. 6`us p`uv`ds rfprfdorf 5fnd $jfrrf 6jg`bnro`t `u $ajbjppf Cujl`d &

70I %!6C@? - %`jg, " %fs h`ujbbfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs ou cnstj`d of N`bjo`r í Nnjdt /nb` #, jd )`ssjfrs ou @fdtrf lj`dnb ;r$a `b`ljquf o';bft, Nnjdt /nb , Lf*!!, 7 EI, 7E p.

701 %!6C@? -, %`[g, " ?d rftrndgafkfdt d rkndo " jdsubnjrf # & Cnronjdf í Nnjdt Nubjng #, jd Cubbftjd ofb';K; ;M d\? , *fddfs, ?djvfrsjtê of *fddfs, 7 7, p. MM :1

70M A!/ % NJ/@6 5fnddf Bv`ddf, %!6C@? -, %`jg, 6@?**B 2 6!B *, 3rndU`jsf, /@?-@6, 2ndjfb," 3`ujbbf o'ud rftrndgafkfdt o'!bnjd 9nrcft rtf ontncbf of I . %f gnkp ofs Anjfs í -rnds ;Jbbf ft 8jbnjdf4 #, jd )`ssjfrs ou @fdtrf o' tuof ft of f$afr$af ;r$a b`ljquf o';bft d\I , Nnjdt /nb`, Lf*!!, 7 , p.1 1

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« )fs s`donlfs urfdt prntjqu s onds bfs fd$b`s v`jsjds ofs =njfs ft ou Xjfu! K'dn 4=nkfb-:jk`d ftnb&, >DID0& Bfs $`d$busj`ds nr$a `b`ljqufs, rfprfdndt bfs `pjdj`ds ajst`rjqufs nd$jfddfs 4Bn C`rofrjf,>ODO, p& "DE-"DO0, d'fkp`rtfdt $fpfdondt pns b'noa sj`d ¹>FE

« ]busjfurs `rtj j$ntj`ds fd tfrrf pnrtjfbbfkfdt `ujbb fs Hrnds `dt t kjsfs fd rnpp`rt nvf$ $fttf/ntnjbbf bn prjsf pnr bfs Crft`ds o'ud $a[tfnu ofs A`rkndos fd D"D7, knjs $fttf a+p`ta*sf d'fkp`rtf pns bn $`dvj$tj`d, fd pnrtj$ubjfr nutf o'udf ontntj`d pr $jsf ft of t`ut k`/jbjfr s$ndojdnvf& ¹ >FI

Su`j qu'jb fd s`jt, s'jb fst ojhhjgjbf o' trf gfrtnjd of b'`ggupntj`d vjijdl of b'ud of gfsofu( gnkps, jb pnrnGt fdg`rf pbus ojhhjgjbf o'= v`jr ud sjtf o'ajvfrdnlf `ggupêpfdondt pbusjfurs k`js.

‗ %f sjtf of $êrnd n êtê h`ujbbê ft êtuojê of kndjárf rjl`urfusf pnr 5fnd $jfrrf6jg`bnro`t of 7 EI í 7 0, ft udf pucbjgntj`d sgjfdtjhjquf fd g`bbnc`rntj`d nvfg$ajbjppf Cujl`d n êtê pucbjê fd 7 7 70E. Nj bfurs g`dgbusj`ds s`dt pnrh`js vufsg`kkf tr`p gntêl`rjqufs, d`us s`uanjt`ds rfg`ddnGtrf, í b'jdstnr of 5fndLarjst`paf Lnssnro, bn vnbfur sgjfdtjhjquf of gf gandtjfr nrgaê`b`ljquf ft bn vnbjojtêof bfurs ndnb=sfs. %f sjtf of $êrnd fst ud sjtf h`rtjhjê, ncrjtndt ud ancjtnt ft ofd`kcrfu( têk`jds of bn vjf nlrjg`bf ontês of b'êp`quf gnr`bjdljfddf, knjs nussj ftsurt`ut ud sjtf h`rtjhjê n=ndt g`ddu udf hjd vj`bfdtf, ft prêsfdtndt ofs nrkfs ft udêqujpfkfdt of gnvnbjfr gnr`bjdljfd k bês í ud ofdjfr vjijdl o'B`ri, ud ganuor`dt=pjqufkfdt sgndojdnvf jofdtjquf í ud ganuor`d oêg`uvfrt onds bn sêpubturf vjijdl of b'Gbf of Cr`j(, ft ud ukc` êlnbfkfdt jofdtjquf í b'ud of gfu( of gfttfofrdjárf sêpubturf vjijdl. N'jb fst ojhhjgjbf of g`kprfdorf gf quj g'fst f(ngtfkfdtpnssê í $êrnd, sj b'`d df pfut dubbfkfdt nttfstfr o'udf grêntj`d f! djajb` ou gnkppnr ofs vjijdls, jb pnrnGt trás pfrtjdfdt of p`sfr b'a=p`taásf of bfur prêsfdgf pbus `uk`jds tfkp`rnjrf nu sfjd of gf gnkp h`rtjhjê oêtrujt vj`bfkkfdt pnr ud jdgfdojf.%n Lar`djquf of Nnjdt 9rjfug, cjfd quf p`stêrjfurf ft í g`dsjoêrfr nvfg grjtjquf,pfut g`dh`rtfr bf s`uvfdjr of bn ofstrugtj`d of gf sjtf vjijdl.

‗ 6`us p`uv`ds êlnbfkfdt êv`qufr jgj bfs h`ujbbfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs n=ndt fu bjfu nusfjd of b'nccn=f of %ndoêvfddfgí pnrtjr of 7 E, s`us bn ojrfgtj`d o'!ddjf 9nrofb 70 ft of *`dnd $frfddfg. L`dgfdtrêf sur b'êtuof ofs ojhhêrfdts êtnts of g`dstrugtj`d ofb'nccn=f, fbbfs êv`qufdt dêndk`jds s`d pjbbnlf pnr udf tr`upf vjijdl fd 7I, nttfstêpnr bfs s`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfs g`kkf pnr bfurs oêg`uvfrtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs.6êndk`jds, sj b'a=p`taásf o'udf cnsf vjijdl êtncbjf onds gf sjtf strntêljquf npnrh`js êtê êv`quêf, fbbf df sfkcbf luárf pfrtjdfdtf nu( nrgaê`b`lufs & d`us dfg`dsjoêrfr`ds o`dg pns b'nccn=f of %ndoêvfddfg g`kkf ud êvfdtufb sjtfo'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl.

" #d n pu $`dstntfr $fpfdondt quf bfs /[tjkfdts n/ndo dd s d' dt pns t `$$up s pnr bfs A`rkndos, /jfd quf bn rjn of b';ubdf njt pu $`dstjtufr ud k`ujbbnlf prjvjb lj & Bn o k`bjtj`d ourfkpnrt d'fst o'njbbfurs pns $`kpntj/bf nvf$ udf trnds `rkntj`d fd $nkp rftrnd$a #770

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70 C?JC@6, $ajbjppf, " %n rfg`dqu tf of bn 9rftnldf pnr bfs 9rft`ds nu ^ ákf sjágbf #, jd Bfs vj(jdls fd ^rnd$f& Bfs o`ssjfrs of b'nr$a `b`ljf d\3II , 2j+`d, 3nt`d, `gt`crf <00<, p. 0

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70 9!*2 %, !ddjf, $ * 66 L, *`dnd, " %fs vjijdls í %ndoêvfddfg #, jd Bfs vj(jdls fd ^rnd$f& Bfs o`ssjfrs ofb'nr$a `b`ljf d\3II , 2j+`d, 3nt`d, `gt`crf <00<, p. M0 M

770 9!*2 %, !ddjf, $ * 66 L, *`dnd, " %fs vjijdls í %ndoêvfddfg #, jd Bfs vj(jdls fd ^rnd$f& Bfs o`ssjfrs of

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‗ %n ofrdjárf `pêrntj`d nrgaê`b ljquf fd ontf fd 3rndgf têk`jldndt o'udfjkp`rtndtf prêsfdgf vjijdl ft p`sndt bn p`ssjcjbjtê o'ud gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf fst bf sjtfof -njbbfc`url, sur bf hbfuvf Lanrfdtf. Lf gandtjfr n êtê rênbjsê onds bf gnorf o'udpr`+ft g`bbfgtjh of rfgafrgaf kfdê pnr 5fnd 3rndU`js /nrj`ttj ft !ddjf 2uk`dt of<00I í <070, ft sfs rêsubtnts `dt êtê pucbjê fd <07I & ;r$a `b`ljf ft ajst`jrf ou

bfuvf @anrfdtf Hnjbbf/`url Q ]`rt o' dvnu!, udf 5`df p`rtunjrf sur bf bfuvf@anrfdtf777. 5fnd 3rndU`js /nrj`ttj ft !ddjf 2uk`dt = rnppfbbf bfs pjstfs ofrêhbf(j`d jdjtjêfs p`ur gf sjtf pnr !dorê 2fc`ro fd 7 E1 77< ft prêsfdtfdt b'fdsfkcbfofs oêg`uvfrtfs of bfur êqujpf pburjojsgjpbjdnjrf. %fur trnvnjb fst prêgjs ftrjl`urfu(, f(fkpbnjrf, ft d`us npp`rtf of trás jkp`rtndtfs g`ddnjssndgfs sur gf qujpfut trf ud gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. d fhhft, bf sjtf of -njbbfc`url $`rt o' dvnu(fst d`tnkkfdt g`dstjtuê o'udf O`df p`rtunjrf gnr`bjdljfddf, nvfg nkêdnlfkfdtsof qunjs ft têk`jds o'udf ngtjvjtê of p gafrjf, ft udf vjdltnjdf o'`c+fts of t=pfndlb` sn(`d ft sgndojdnvf. %fs nrgaê`b`lufs `dt njdsj oêg`uvfrt of d`kcrfu(nrkfs gnr`bjdljfddfs, `utjbs ft `c+fts ou qu`tjojfd ojhhjgjbfs í jofdtjhjfr... t d`dsfubfkfdt of d`kcrfusfs nrkfs sgndojdnvfs, pr`gafs of gfbbfs ou gnkp of $êrndft of b'Gbf of Cr`j(, ud ganuor`d sfkcbncbf í gfu( rftr`uvês onds gfs k kfs gnkps,ud nddfnu fd `r of t=pf sgndojdnvf sfkcbf í gfbuj of b'Gbf of Cr`j( í d`uvfnu, knjsnussj ofs ndgrfs sur bfsqufbbfs `d pfut s'jdtfrr`lfr, ft ofs pb`kcs of hjbft dnvjh`rkfo`dt bn sfubf g`kpnrnjs`d n êtê rfbfvêf `utrf ntbndtjquf onds bf k`cjbjfr jssu ofb'`ggupntj`d vjijdl of 2ucbjd.

‗ Sufbqufs trnvnu( of s=dtaásf `dt êlnbfkfdt êtê pucbjêfs, g`dstrujts sur bfsoêg`uvfrtfs nrgaê`b`ljqufs p`uvndt trf bjêfs í b'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. !vndt s`d trnvnjbsur bfs oêg`uvfrtfs of b'Gbf of Cr`j(, %jbjndf -nrr`u nvnjt g`dstrujt fd <000 udf trásjdtêrfssndtf êtuof of b'fdsfkcbf ou k`cjbjfr of t=pf sgndojdnvf oêg`uvfrt fd3rndgf77I, pujs fst rfvfdu sur bf su+ft onds ud nrtjgbf of s=dtaásf fd <00771.

‗ @utrf ntbndtjquf, 2ndjfbbfn -r=d`si= ft /nttafK Hjfcnrta 77M `dt pr`p`sê fd <071,of grêfr ud k`oábf t=pf ou gnkp o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl, í pnrtjr of o`ddêfsstntjstjqufs lê` spntjnbfs, nhjd of p`uv`jr oêg`uvrjr of d`uvfnu( sjtfsnrgaê`b`ljqufs. $bus prêgjsêkfdt, jbs grêfrnjfdt udf cnsf of o`ddêf, nbjkfdtêf pnrbfs gnrngtêrjstjqufs ofs sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdls g`ddus ;a=or`b`ljf, tfrrnjd...4. %n cnsf of o`ddêf grêfrnjt nb`rs ud k`oábf t=pf of sjtf o'ajvfrdnlf, quj p`urrnjt trfnppbjquêf í ofs njrfs o'jdtêr t nrgaê`b`ljquf, ft njdsj pfrkfttrf of oêg`uvrjr ofd`uvfnu( sjtfs o'ajvfrdnlf vjijdl. 6`us df snv`ds pns sj bfurs trnvnu( `dt êtêjdjtjês í gf +`ur ;<07M4.

‗ dhjd, fd oêgfkcrf <071, Jrádf Cnrg n %`squj ` of b'udjvfrsjtê o'!cfroffd n

b'nr$a `b`ljf d\3II , 2j+`d, 3nt`d, `gt`crf <00<, p. M777 2?/@6- !ddjf, /!*J@--J 5fnd 3rndU`js ;ojr.4, ;r$a `b`ljf ft ajst`jrf ou bfuvf @anrfdtf& Hnjbbf/`url-] rt

oG dvnu! udf 5`df p`rtunjrf ou anut K`+fd lf sur bf bfuvf @anrfdtf, 2j+`d, ojtj`ds ?djvfrsjtnjrfs of2j+`d, <07I

77< 2 9@*2, !dorê, Bn s`$j t bnPquf onds bfs pn+s of bn @anrfdtf, *kf Q MM *kf sj*$bf, $nrjs, $jgnro, 7 E177I -!**@?, %jbjndf, @`rpus ou k`/jbjfr of t+pf s$ndojdnvf 4M!f- Mf sj*$bfs0 o $`uvfrt fd ^rnd$f Crftnldf,

A`rkndojf ft ]n+s of bn B jrf , /êk`jrf p`ur udf knGtrjsf o'nrgaê`b`ljf, ?djvfrsjtê of $`jtjfrs, <000, < v`b.771 -!**@?, %jbjndf, " %fs `c+fts vjijdls fd 3rndgf #, jd B'a rjtnlf ofs vj(jdls fd ^rnd$f, =jst`jrf ft jknlfs

k oj vnbfs d\" , !str`bncf, hêvrjfr knrs nvrjb <00 , !pt, p. I< I77M -*B6@NWJ 2ndjfbbfn, HJ 9!*-A, /nttafK, " 8jijdl _jdtfr Lnkps & Lrfntjdl n /`ofb usjdl Cf`spntjnb

Ntntjstjgnb !dnb=sjs #, jd?Dta Mdtfrdntj`dnb @`dlrfss d Kfojfvnb :tuojfs , _fstfrd /jgajlnd ?djvfrsjt=, E knj<071

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ndd`dgê onds ud nrtjgbf77: qu'fbbf `rlndjsnjt ud gandtjfr of h`ujbbf nrgaê`b`ljquf fdspnldf. Nujtf í udf tfkp tf fd knrs <071, nssjstêf pnr bf 2r 5nd Afdrji 3nbblrfdof b'udjvfrsjtê o'!cfroffd, ft Bbvn 9ngistr`k, of b'?djvfrsjt= of %udo, fbbf nurnjtrfpêrê fd Cnbjgf bfs p`ssjcbfs trngfs o'udb`dlpa`rt vjijdl. bbf s`uanjtf rfvfdjr fdCnbjgf nu prjdtfkps <07M, nhjd o'= nss`gjfr udf prfkjárf pr`spfgtj`d nrgaê`b`ljqufnvfg b'êtuof of gnrtfs ft vufs nêrjfddfs ou sjtf.

77: C!*L ! %@NS?J @, Jrádf, " 2jlljdl up taf 'spndjsa vjijdls' #, Njtf jdtfrdft of b'udjvfrsjtê of !cfroffd,?djvfrsjt= `h !cfroffd 6fKs & g`kkudjgntjdl taf K`ri ndo ngajfvfkfdts `h taf ?djvfrsjt= ndo jts pf`pbf t`taf _`rbo , attp& KKK.ncod.ng.ui dfKs 7E1 , 7E oêgfkcrf <071

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`urgfs o`gukfdtnjrfsj( s`urgfs dnrrntjvfs g`dtfkp`rnjdfs of r h rfdgf

Nddnbfs of njdt-#ubon $ #ubofdsfs • Êojtj`d bntjdf & ;ddnbfs ^ubofdsfs, êo. C. A. $frtO ft 3. WurOf, K = :$rjpt`rfs fruk

frkndj$nrud jd usu s$a`bnruk , , And`vrf, Anad, 7E 7• -rnougtj`d & Haf ;ddnbs ` ^ubon, trno. -. *futfr, /ndgafstfr, /ndgafstfr ?djvfrsjt=

$rfss, " /ndgafstfr /fojfvnb N`urgfs sfrjfs, 6jdta Lfdtur= Ajst`rjfs #, v`b. JJ, 7 <

Nddnbfs of njdt-Cfrtjd $ Cfrtjdjndj • Êojtj`d bntjdf & ;ddnbfs of :njdt-Cfrtjd , êo. 3. Crnt, 5. 8jfbbjnro, N. Lbêkfdgft, $nrjs,

N`gjêtê of b'ajst`jrf of 3rndgf, 7 :1• -rnougtj`d ndlbnjsf &Haf ;ddnbs ` :t-Cfrtjd , trno. t ndd. $nr 5. 6fbs`d, /ndgafstfr,

/ndgafstfr ?djvfrsjt= $rfss, " /ndgafstfr /fojfvnb N`urgfs sfrjfs, 6jdta Lfdtur=Ajst`rjfs #, v`b. J, 7 7

Nddnbfs of njdt-%nnst $ %fonstjdj • Êojtj`d bntjdf & ;ddnbfs ndtfdsfs ft ;ddnbfs Xfonstjdj , êo. 9. v`d Njks`d, K =,

:$rjpt`rfs rfruk frkndj$nruk jd usuk s$`bnruk , 7<, And`vrf, Anad ft %fjpOjl,Anad, 7 0 m

• -rnougtj`d nbbfkndof & ;ddnbfs Xfonstjdj , êo. *!?, *., !S2C/, 8J, 9frbjd, * ttfdudo %`fdjdl, 7 :0, pp. <E II

&ar`djquf $ &ar`djg`d of 'êljd`d of ]r(k • Êojtj`d bntjdf ft trnougtj`d nbbfkndof &@ar`dj$`d of ljd`d of ]r6k , êo. *!?, *.,

!S2C/, 8JJ, 9frbjd, * ttfd udo %`fdjdl, 7 :0, p. 7 I7

&ar`djquf Ndlb`-sn)`ddf • Êojtj`d fd vjfjb ndlbnjs &Haf ;dlb`-:n!`d @ar`dj$bf , êo. 2 m _ajtfb`gi, 2. 2`ulbns ft

N. -ugifr, %`dorfs, =rf ndo Np`ttjsK``of, 7 :7 m•

-rnougtj`d ndlbnjsf &Haf ;dlb`-:n!`d @ar`dj$bfs , êo. /. NKndt`d, <f êo., %`dorfs,$a`fdj( $rfss, <000

`urgfs dnrrntjvfs g`dtfkp`rnjdfs g`kpb kfdtnjrfs Nddnbfs of *ndtfd $ *ndtfdsfs • Êojtj`d bntjdf & ;ddnbfs ndtfdsfs ft ;ddnbfs Xfonstjdj , êo. 9. v`d Njks`d, K =,

:$rjpt`rfs rfruk frkndj$nruk jd usuk s$`bnruk , 7<, And`vrf, Anad ft %fjpOjl,Anad, 7 0 m

• -rnougtj`d nbbfkndof & ;ddnbfs ndtfdsfs , êo. *!?, *., !S2C/, 8J, 9frbjd, * ttfdudo %`fdjdl, 7 :0, pp. II I 7

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Nddnbfs of +ft, $ +fttfdsfs ]rj`rfs • Êojtj`d bntjdf ;pêrj`of : E EI04 & ;ddnbfs Kfttfdsfs ]rj`rfs , êo. 9. v`d Njks`d,

K =, :$rjpt`rfs rfruk frkndj$nruk jd usuk s$`bnruk , 70, And`vrf, Anad,7 0M, 77E p.

• Êojtj`d bntjdf ;pêrj`of : E 014 & ;ddnbfs ^rnd$`ruk Kftfdsfs , êo. 3rndU`js ft !dorê 2u Lafsdf, =jst`rjn ^rnd$`ruk s$rjpt`rfs $`fntfndj&&&, I, Lrnk`js=, $nrjs,7:I:, p. <:< III

• Êojtj`d hrndUnjsf ;pêrj`of EE< 014 & ;ddnbfs of Kft5 , êo. /. CujO`t, L`bbfgtj`dofs kêk`jrfs rfbntjhs í b'ajst`jrf of 3rndgf, 9rjárf, $nrjs, 7E<1, p. I7: IM0

Nddnbfs of #`dtfdfbbf $ #`dtndfbbfdsfs • Êojtj d bntjdf ft trnougtj d hrndUnjsf & ;ddnbfs ^`dtndfbbfdsfs prj`rfs 4`u

@ar`dj$`d ^`dtndfbbfdsf0, êo. 5. %np`rtf, *`ufd $nrjs, N`gjêtê of b'ajst`jrf of6`rkndojf, /êbndlfs, 7Mf sêrjf, 7 M7, p. :I 7

Nddnbfs of 'fo`d •

Êojtj`d bntjdf & ;ddnbfs of :njdt-:nuvfur of fo`d , êo. $ajbjppf %nccf, 6`vn cjcbj`tafgn kndusgrjpt`rjuk, v`b. J, $nrjs, 7: M, p. <M0

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Cnutjfr, %fs 9fbbfs %fttrfs, $nrjs, <07I

`urgf dnrrntjvf p`st rjfurf g`kpb kfdtnjrf

&ar`djquf of njdt-Crjfug • Êojtj`d bntjdf &@ar`dj$`d Crj`$fdsf, @ar`djquf of :njdt-Crjfu$ , êo. CKfddnRb %f

2ug ft Lbnuof Ntfrg(, *fddfs, Njk`d, 7 <, <IE p.

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• Êojtj`d bntjdf & Bfs Kjrn$bfs of :njdt-Cfd`.t, $rjts pnr ;orfvnbo, ;jk`jd, ;dor , n`ub H`rtnjrf, ft =ulufs of :njdtf Knrjf, k`jdfs of ^bfur+ , êo. . of Lfrtnjd,

N`gjêtê of b'Ajst`jrf of 3rndgf, $nrjs, *fd`unro, 7E:E%jf ft kjrngbfs of njdt-]ajbjcfrt

• Êojtj`d bntjdf & $@?$!*2J6, *fdê, K`dukfdts of b'ajst`jrf ofs n//n+fs :njdt- ]ajbj/frt 4A`jrk`utjfr, rndobjfu, H`urdus0 o'npr*s bfs d`tfs o';rtaur jr+ , êo.$jgnro ft hjbs, $nrjs, 7 0M

• -rnougtj`ds hrndUnjsfs & /! -* , %ê`d, " *êgjt of bn trndsbntj`d ofs rfbjqufs ofNnjdt $ajbjcfrt ft ofs kjrngbfs ngg`kpbjs sur s`d t`kcfnu, pnr rkfdtnjrf # jd Bfsvjbbfs ojspnrufs of bn B`jrf jd rjfurf, t& MM , Jkpr. 6ntj`dnbf, $nrjs, 7E :, p. <I:< 1 m2 %A@// !? %`ujs, 9@?AJ * Lbnuof, Xjf ft kjrn$bfs of :njdt-]ajb/frt pnr rkfdtnjrf , êo. %fs nkjs of b'Gbf of 6`jrk`utjfr, 6`jrk`utjfr, 7 , 711 p

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`urgfs nrga `b`ljqufs

jtfs nrga `b`ljqufs sjtu s fd )rndgfjtf nrgaê`b`ljquf of bn sêpubturf = cntfnu >j3jdl of b7/bf of ?r`j)

• bf of Cr`j(, /`rcjand, 3rndgf.• 3`ujbbf nrgaê`b`ljquf fd 7 0: pnr $nub ou Lantfbjfr ft %`ujs bf $`dt`js, pucbjgntj`d

sgjfdtjhjquf fd 7 0E.• 8nbjontj`d ofs g`dgbusj`ds nvndgêfs pnr C. Custnhs`d fd 7 0E, d`uvfbbf êtuof pnr

/jganfb / bbfr _jbbf fd 7 E pujs pnr %jbjndf -nrr`u fd <00<.

+`cjbjfr nrgaê`b`ljquf nttrjcuê nu gnkp >j3jdl of b7/bf of Cjágf • 6ndtfs, %`jrf !tbndtjquf, 3rndgf.• 2êg`uvfrtfs h`rtujtfs b`rs of ornlnlf of bn %`jrf, d`d o`gukfdtêfs, ft pucbjgntj`d

sgjfdtjhjquf pnr Cf`rlfs 2urvjbbf fd 7 <E.• /êk`jrf sur bf k`cjbjfr nrgaê`b`ljquf fd <001 pnr /=bádf 6nvftnt.

jtf nrgaê`b`ljquf ou gnkp of ]êrnd6 pr`cncbfkfdt gnkp >j3jdl • $bêornd, LFtfs o'!rk`r, 3rndgf• 3`ujbbf nrgaê`b`ljquf of 7 EI í 7 0 pnr 5fnd $jfrrf 6jg`bnro`t, pucbjgntj`d

sgjfdtjhjquf of s=dtaásf fd pnrtfdnrjnt nvfg $ajbjppf Cujl`d fd 7 7.

jtf nrgaê`b`ljquf of _njbbfc`url6 pfut-8trf gnkp >j3jdl • -njbbfc`url, Lanrfdtf /nrjtjkf, 3rndgf• 3`ujbbf nrgaê`b`ljquf of <00I í <070 pnr 5fnd 3rndU`js /nrj`ttj ft !ddjf 2uk`dt,

pucbjgntj`d sgjfdtjhjquf of s=dtaásf fd <07I.

jtfs nrga `b`ljqufs sjtu s fd Ndlbftfrrfjtf nrgaê`b`ljquf ou pr`cncbf gnkp >j3jdl of 'fpt`d

• *fpt`d, 2frc=sajrf, !dlbftfrrf• 3`ujbbf nrgaê`b`ljquf of 7 1 í 7 I pnr /nrtjd 9joobf ft 9jrtaf W+\bc=f 9joobf,

ofrdjárf pucbjgntj`d sgjfdtjhjquf fd <007.

jtf nrgaê`b`ljquf ou pr`cncbf gnkp >j3jdl of _`r3sf< • -`risf=, %jdg`bdsajrf, !dlbftfrrf• /ubtjpbfs oêg`uvfrtfs pnr ofs pnrtjgubjfrs, pfu o`gukfdtêfs, ft pucbjgntj`d

sgjfdtjhjquf of s=dtaásf pnr /nri 9bngicurd fd <077.• $r`spfgtj`d nrgaê`b`ljquf pnr 2nvjo Anobf= ft 5ubjnd 2. *jganros fd <07I.

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