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  • Document gnr le 20 mai 2018 17:39

    Relations industrielles

    Absenteeism and Overtime: Double Jeopardy

    Al Mikalachki et D. C. Chapple

  • Volume 32, numro 4, 1977

    URI : id.erudit.org/iderudit/028821arDOI : 10.7202/028821ar

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    Dpartement des relations industrielles de lUniversit Laval

    ISSN 0034-379X (imprim)

    1703-8138 (numrique)

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    Mikalachki, A. & Chapple, D. (1977). Absenteeism andOvertime: Double Jeopardy. Relations industrielles, 32(4), 532546. doi:10.7202/028821ar

    Rsum de l'article

    Une tude rcente (Johnson et Peterson, 1975) estime le cotde l'absentisme pour les employeurs entre $110.00 et $300.00par employ par anne. On peut regrouper les facteurs quiaffectent l'absentisme sous trois grandes rubriques:l'environnement, l'entreprise et l'individu. La valeur positivedu travail dcline et l'intrt pour les loisirs s'accrot. Lesuccs dans les activits libres apparat plus important que lesuccs au travail. Ainsi, il s'est cr une ambiance peu propiceau travail. Certaines variables l'intrieur de l'entreprise,comme ses dimensions, le contenu des tches, les relationsentre les employs et le rgime de rtribution influencel'absentisme. Il en est de mme de l'ge de l'employ, de sondegr d'instruction et de son conditionnement social.Sefondant sur les points prcdents et les conclusions inspirespar les tudes sur l'absentisme, les auteurs ont utilis lescartes de prsence des salaris pour formuler les quatrehypothses suivantes :1 Plus la tche exige de qualifications,moins l'absentisme est marqu. (Ingham, 1970; Mikalachki,1975; Herzberg, 1966; Beatty 1975; Shore, octobre 1975.)2 Plusl'employ est jeune, plus l'absentisme est lev. (Beatty, 1975;Yolles et autres, 1975.)3 Plus la tche est rmunre, plusl'absentisme est bas (Ingham, 1970; Legge, 1974; Legge1975.)Les donnes ne confirment aucune des hypothsesprcdentes.Celles-ci ont t analyses de nouveau en sefondant sur la variable suivante: la possibilit pour l'employd'exercer un contrle sur les heures supplmentaires qu'il luiest possible d'excuter.Lorsque les travailleurs n'ont que peu dire en matire d'heures supplmentaires, l'hypothse ci-dessus se vrifie. C'est quand les travailleurs peuventinfluencer les heures supplmentaires que les donnesdeviennent fausses.Le contrle du travailleur sur les heuressupplmentaires exerce un poids considrable surl'absentisme. Dans une socit o la valeur du travail dclineet o l'intrt pour les loisirs s'accrot, les travailleurs neveulent que passer le moins de temps possible au travail envue d'en retirer un revenu fixe. En faisant des heuressupplmentaires et en s'absentant les jours de travail rgulier,le travailleur atteint le but recherch, c'est--dire qu'il toucheun meilleur revenu pour une priode de travail plus courte.Leschefs d'entreprise, qui ont affronter le problme del'absentisme, reconnaissent qu'il s'agit l d'une faon d'agirqui est renforce par l'entreprise elle-mme, par l'attitudeindividuelle et par les circonstances ambiantes. Quelques-unsont compris le problme et mis au point des trucs quiraffermissent l'assiduit. En voici quelques-uns:Le systmeloterie: Tous les employs qui ont un dossier d'assiduit et deponctualit parfait courent la chance d'obtenir unercompense mensuelle de cent dollars. Dans cette entreprise,le taux d'absentisme a baiss de trente pour cent en moinsd'un an. (Johnson et Wallin, 1976).La partie de poker. Chaqueemploy d'un service choisit une carte dans un paquet chaquejour de la semaine, celui qui a la meilleure main dans chaqueservice gagne vingt dollars. Dans cette socit, l'absentisme abaiss de 3.01 2.31 pour cent en trois mois. (Pedalino etGambro, 1974).Le truc du chapeau. On tire les noms desemploys de tous les services la fin de chaque semaine. Letirage continue jusqu' ce que l'on tombe sur le nom d'unemploy dont le dossier est parfait. Cet employ touche centdollars. En un certain nombre de mois, l'absentisme esttomb de dix cinq pour cent. (Financial Post, octobre1975).Ces mthodes montrent que le renforcement pratiquede l'assiduit bien comprise peut avoir une influence certainesur les habitudes de prsence et de ponctualit au travail.

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    Tous droits rservs Dpartement des relationsindustrielles de l'Universit Laval, 1977

    https://id.erudit.org/iderudit/028821arhttp://dx.doi.org/10.7202/028821arhttps://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/ri/1977-v32-n4-ri2840/https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/ri/https://apropos.erudit.org/fr/usagers/politique-dutilisation/https://apropos.erudit.org/fr/usagers/politique-dutilisation/http://www.erudit.org

  • Absenteeism and Overtime Double Jeopardy A. Mikalachki and D. C. Chapple

    This study investigated factors leading to absenteeism in a large auto plant employing about 1,000 workers. The hypothses examined dealt with the effect on absenteeism of: the skill required for the job, the worker's ge and health, and the base pay rate. The initial analysis proved opposite ofwhat is usually found. An additional factor was examined: the ability of the worker to control the amount of overtime he worked. The data then showed that the worker who is able to achieve a set income for the fewest days in attendance by working overtime, uses this device to spend less time on the job. Ideas were also presented to show that positive reinforcement of good attendance can resuit in decreased absenteeism.

    It is always somewhat baffling, albeit exciting, to discover that one's research findings are in opposition to previous research results. Such was the position we found ourselves in after doing a literature survey of absenteeism followed by a study based on company records of automobile plant workers. Our sample consisted of 1024 maie employes whose ges ranged from eighteen to sixty-seven.

    Our initial results indicated that certain variables long-held to be dterminants of absenteeism did not correlate as expected. In some cases, the results proved to be the opposite of what was expected. Re-examination of our data from a diffrent viewpoint led us to the discovery that one parameter dominated ail the others, thus changing the form of absenteeism. This overriding parameter is overtime; more specifically it is the worker's ability to control the amount of overtime he works.

    MIKALACHKI, A., Professor, School of Business Administration, The Uni-versity of Western Ontario, London, Ontario CHAPPLE, D. C , Student, School of Business Administration, The Uni-versity of Western Ontario, London, Ontario

  • ABSENTEEISM AND OVERTIME: DOUBLE JEOPARDY 533

    Absenteeism has been defined as one symptom of the individual's total adjustment to the job situation (Yolles et. al., 1975, p. 2). It can further be classified as excused or unexcused ; however, it is com-monly understood as unexcused, meaning that the worker does not attend work and does not give prior notice to his supervisor. This paper reports on the factors affecting unexcused absenteeism, hereafter referred to as absenteeism.

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    In today's industrial organizations, absenteeism is commanding the attention of ail management levels. A rcent study estimated the costs of absenteeism to be between $110 and $300 per employe per year (Johnson and Peterson, 1975). Another study estimated the costs to increase at the rate of $150,000 per year for each percentage increase in the absente rate in a plant of 1,000 employes (Hawk, 1976). Thse costs are constantly rising due to the effect of inflation and increasingly-generous benefit plans. The cost of absenteeism is a function of lost productivity, the hiring of extra help, the training of extra help, over-time, fringe benefit plans and loss of sales and profits (Hawk, 1976; Shore, September, 1975).

    The factors affecting absenteeism can be grouped under three broad headings (Yolles et. al., 1975): the environment, the organization and the individual.

    The Environment

    Of the three factors, the environment is probably the most im-portant. Absenteeism is significantly affected by society's attitudes towards work. Over the past two dcades, absenteeism has increased due to such attitudinal changes as the growing importance of the indi-vidual in contrast to work, the increasing amount of emphasis on leisure time and activities and the increasingly-pervasive value of to get more for less (Yolles et. al., 1975).

    Work is viewed as a means to an end rather than an end it itself. Work is only one of many ways in which the individual's ego can be expressed (Yolles et al., 1975). In conjunction with the relatively declining value of work, leisure time activities grow in importance. The do-it-yourself vogue and the upsurge in sporting and camping activities attest to the growing importance of non-work activities which are socially-approved and ego satisyfing. Success in non-work activities

  • 534 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS INDUSTRIELLES, VOL. 32, NO 4

    has become increasingly more important than success at work (Yolles et. al., 1975).

    The attitude to get more for less is affecting the work place and contributing to absenteism. Contract negotiations will reflect this atti-tude in that fringe benefits are gaining increasing importance, as are demands for increased paid vacations, a shorter work week, long

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